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PIB 19th December 2020


  1. Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
  2. Hypersonic Wind Tunnel


Focus: GS 2 ;Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues.

Why in News?

PM pays tributes to Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji on his Shaheedi Diwas

About Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

  • The Guru Tegh Bahadur was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
  • He was born at Amritsar in 1621 and was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind.
  • His term as Guru ran from 1665 to 1675. One hundred and fifteen of his hymns are in Guru Granth Sahib.
"Give up your 
head, but forsake not 
those whom you have 
undertaken to protect. 
Sacrifice your life, but 
relinquish not your 
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

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Focus: GS 3 ;Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

Inauguration of Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at DRDO Hyderabad

About Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

  • In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that greatly exceeds the speed of sound, often stated as starting at speeds of Mach 5 and above.
  • A hypersonic wind tunnel is designed to generate a hypersonic flow field in the working section, thus simulating the typical flow features of this flow regime – including compression shocks and pronounced boundary layer effects, entropy layer and viscous interaction zones and most importantly high total temperatures of the flow.
  • This wind tunnel type is used to simulate the hypersonic, hypervelocity and high enthalpy airflows that are experienced by space flights during atmospheric re-entry and also to provide the insight for real gas effect aerodynamics for design of thermal protection system.
  • India’s first hypersonic wind tunnel test facility inaugurated in Hyderabad.
  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated the advanced Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) test facility in Hyderabad, making India the third country after the US and Russia to have such a facility. 
  • ISRO commissioned three major facilities a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel, a Shock Tunnel and a Plasma tunnel at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center as part of its continuous and concerted efforts to minimize cost of access to space. 
  • The commissioning of such facilities would provide adequate data for design and development of current and future space transportation systems in India.
  • The state-of-the-art HWT Test facility is “pressure vacuum driven enclosed free jet facility having nozzle exit diameter of 1 metre and will simulate Mach No 5 to 12 (Mach represents the multiplication factor to the speed of sound).
  • It is an indigenous development and an outcome of synergistic partnership with Indian industries.
  • The facility has the capability to “simulate hypersonic flow over a wide spectrum and will play a major role in the realization of highly complex futuristic aerospace and defence systems
Applications of Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
  • The hypersonic wind tunnel is used to test flight characteristics in a hypersonic region.
  • To develop satellite launch rockets, space shuttles, etc.,
  • It is essential to test in the hypersonic range of Mach number 5 or more.
February 2024