- RANI LAKSHMIBAI
- SRI GURU NANAK DEV JI
Focus: GS I- Modern Indian history
Why in News?
PM paid tribute to Rani Lakshmibai on her Jayanti.
About Rani Lakshmibai
- The Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, was an Indian queen of the Maratha princely state of Jhansi in North India currently present in Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh, India.
- She was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and became a symbol of resistance to the British Raj for Indian nationalists.
- When Growing up with Nana Sahib and Tatya Tope, she got training in martial arts, sword fighting and horse riding and became proficient in them. She was more independent than other girls of her age, due to her unconventional upbringing.
- The Rani Lakshmibai was one of the brave warriors of India’s struggle for Independence.
- In 1853, when the Maharaja of Jhansi died, the East India Company took advantage of the situation and applied the Doctrine of Lapse to annex Jhansi.
- The Lakshmibai fought bravely against the British and gave a tough fight to Sir Hugh Rose so as to save her empire from annexation. She died fighting on the battlefield on June 17, 1858.
- When the Indian National Army started its first female unit (in 1943), it was named after the valiant queen of Jhansi.
About Doctrine of Lapse
- It was an annexation policy followed widely by Lord Dalhousie when he was India’s Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.
- According to this, any princely state that was under the direct or indirect control of the East India Company where the ruler did not have a legal male heir would be annexed by the company.
- As per this, any adopted son of the Indian ruler could not be proclaimed as heir to the kingdom.
By applying the doctrine of lapse, Dalhousie annexed the States of:
- Satara (1848 A.D.),
- Jaitpur, and Sambalpur (1849 A.D.),
- Baghat (1850 A.D.),
- Udaipur (1852 A.D.),
- Jhansi (1853 A.D.), and
- Nagpur (1854 A.D.)
SRI GURU NANAK DEV JI
Focus: GS I- History
Why in News?
The Prime Minister has greeted the people on the occasion of Parkash Purab of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
- On the special occasion of the Parkash Purab of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Shri Modi has recalled his pious thoughts and noble ideals.
About Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji
- The Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469-1539) was born in a village, Talwandi Rai Bhoe, near Lahore (it was renamed later as Nankana Sahib).
- The Guru Nanak Dev Ji initiated inter-faith dialogue way back in the 16th century and had conversations with most of the religious denominations of his times.
- The Guru Nanak Dev Ji, also referred to as Baba Nanak, was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
- His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Katak Pooranmashi i.e October – November.
- His written compositions were included in the Adi Granth compiled by Guru Arjan (1563-1606), the fifth Sikh guru.
- This came to be known as Guru Granth Sahib after the additions made by the 10th Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708).
- In compiling the Adi Granth, Guru Arjan showed a remarkable commitment to pluralism while retaining the unity of thought initiated by Guru Nanak Dev.
- He advocated Nirguna Bhakti.
- He firmly repudiated practices of religions around him like sacrifices, ritual baths, idol worship, austerities, and scriptures of both Hindus and Muslims.
- He appointed Angad to succeed him as the Guru.
- He never wished to establish new religion, but after his death his followers consolidated his practices and distinguished from both Hindus and Muslims by calling themselves ‘Sikhs’.
Above attached image of all the 10 Guru’s of Sikhism.
5 teachings of Guru Nanak Ji
The One God
- The Guru Nanak ji said “I am neither hindu nor Muslim, I am follower of God”, which actually spoke about his belief in one God. In Sikhism, the god is omnipresent, shapeless, timeless and sightless. (Nirankar, akar, alakh)
- The Guru Nanak Ji was strongly against all artificially created divisions and all discriminations, both in word and deed.
- The Guru Nanak ji asked his followers to shun five evils of Ego, Anger, Greed, Attachment and Lust and adopting five virtues Truth, Compassion, Contentment, Discipline and Contemplation
Importance of Guru
- The Guru Nanak Ji laid great emphasis on having the importance of Guru in one’s Life.
Sewa is the Key to Humanity
- As Said by Guru Nanak Ji “In the midst of this world, do Sewa and you shall be given a place of honor in the court of the Lord”.