- SWACHH BHARAT MISSION – URBAN 2.0 & AMRUT 2.0
Focus: GS III- Defence
Why in News?
Surface to Surface Ballistic Missile, Agni-5, successfully launched from APJ Abdul Kalam Island
About Agni Missiles
There are 5 Agni series of missiles:
- Agni I: Range of 700-800 km.
- Agni II: Range more than 2000 km.
- Agni III: Range of more than 2,500 Km
- Agni IV: Range is more than 3,500 km and can fire from a road mobile launcher.
- Agni-V: The longest of the Agni series, an Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) with a range of over 5,000 km.
- Agni-V is an Indian nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.
- The exact range of the Agni-V missile is classified. The missile is believed to have a range of over 5,000 km and expandable up to 8,000 km.
- It is a three-stage solid-fuelled missile.
- Agni-V incorporated advanced technologies involving ring laser gyroscope and accelerometer for navigation and guidance. A ring laser gyroscope based inertial navigation system (RLG-INS) is primarily responsible for guiding the Agni-V to its target. However, Agni-V is equipped with another guidance system called micro inertial navigation system (MINGS) as a backup. These are capable of interacting with Indian and non-Indian satellite navigation systems.
- Agni-V is also expected to feature Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) with each missile being capable of carrying 2–10 separate nuclear warheads.
- India is the eighth country to have intercontinental ballistic missiles after the US, UK, Russia, China, France, Israel and North Korea.
- Agni V is primarily for enhancing India’s nuclear deterrence against China.
SWACHH BHARAT MISSION – URBAN 2.0 & AMRUT 2.0
Focus: GS II- Welfare schemes
Why in News?
Union Minister for Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched the operational guidelines of Swachh Bharat Mission – Urban 2.0 and AMRUT 2.0.
About Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- SBM-U 2.0 envisions to make all cities ‘Garbage Free’
- To ensure grey and black water management in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT
- To make all urban local bodies as ODF+ and those with a population of less than 1 lakh as ODF++, thereby achieving the vision of safe sanitation in urban areas.
- The Mission will focus on source segregation of solid waste, utilizing the principles of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), scientific processing of all types of municipal solid waste and remediation of legacy dumpsites for effective solid waste management.
- The outlay of SBM-U 2.0 is around ₹1.41 lakh crore.
About AMRUT 2.0
- AMRUT 2.0 aims to provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 urban local bodies by providing about 2.68 crore tap connections and 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities by providing around 2.64 crore sewer/ septage connections, which will benefit more than 10.5 crore people in urban areas.
- AMRUT 2.0 will adopt the principles of circular economy and promote conservation and rejuvenation of surface and groundwater bodies.
- The Mission will promote data led governance in water management and Technology Sub-Mission to leverage latest global technologies and skills.
- ‘Pey Jal Survekshan’ will be conducted to promote progressive competition among cities.
- The outlay of AMRUT 2.0 is around ₹2.87 lakh crore.
Impact of SBM-U and AMRUT
- SBM-U and AMRUT have contributed significantly to improve urban landscape during the last seven years.
- The two flagship Missions have augmented the capacity to deliver basic services of water supply and sanitation to the citizens.
- Swachhta has become a Jan Andolan today.
- All urban local bodies have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 70% solid waste is being scientifically processed now.
- AMRUT has been ensuring water security by adding 1.1 crore household water tap connections and 85 lakh sewer connections, thus benefiting more than 4 crore people.
Focus: GS III- Indian Economy
Why in News?
Union Minister of MSME has called for engagement of the youth in promoting entrepreneurship leading to the economic development of the country. Launching “SAMBHAV”, a National Level Awareness Programme-2021 being organised by Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Government of India, in New Delhi.
- It emphasized that new products and services created by budding entrepreneurs can give a cascading effect, for stimulating related businesses or sectors.
- It stressed upon enhancing the GDP contribution from present 30 per cent to 50 per cent, and employment generation in MSME sector from 11 crore to 15 crore.
- The mass outreach program will be a one-month long initiative under the Ministry of MSME in which students from different colleges/ITIs from all parts of the country will be encouraged by 130 field offices of the Ministry to take up entrepreneurship.
- During the campaign the college students will be made aware of the various schemes being implemented by the Ministry of MSME through Audio/Video film presentations.
- Awareness programs will be conducted in more than 1,300 colleges across the country in which 1,50,000 students are expected to participate.