- RESEARCH DESIGN AND STANDARDS ORGANISATION
- SOUTH WEST MONSOON
Focus: GS III- Agriculture
Why in news?
APEDA organizes webinar to commemorate the World Milk Day in collaboration with Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying for harnessing India’s export potential of dairy products.
Nodal: Ministry of Commerce and Industry
- The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act, 1985.
- The Authority has its headquarters in New Delhi.
- A Chairman is appointed by the Central Government.
- APEDA is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the scheduled products viz. fruits, vegetables and their products; meat and meat products; poultry and poultry products; dairy products; confectionery, biscuits and bakery products; honey, jaggery and sugar products; cocoa and its products, chocolates of all kinds; alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages; cereal and cereal products; groundnuts, peanuts and walnuts, pickles, papads and chutneys; guar gum; floriculture and floriculture products; herbal and medicinal plants.
- APEDA has been entrusted with the responsibility to monitor import of sugar.
- Registration of persons as exporters of the scheduled products and fixing of standards and specifications for the scheduled products for the purpose of exports.
- Carrying out inspection of meat and meat products in slaughterhouses, processing plants, storage premises and improving packaging of the scheduled products.
WORLD MILK DAY
- World Milk Day is a day that was established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 2001 to recognize the importance of milk as global food and celebrate the dairy sector.
- The day has been observed on June 1 each year ever since 2001.
- THEME: The World Milk Day 2021 theme focuses on sustainability in the dairy sector with messages around the environment, nutrition and socio-economics.
- The World Milk Day 2021 aims to re-introduce dairy farming to the world and help create a positive stream of conversation.
- The organisers of the World Milk Day 2021 invited videos from farmers and others who are embracing technology to help create a low-carbon future for dairy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND STANDARDS ORGANISATION
Focus: GS II- Government Scheme/Policies
Why in news?
RDSO (Research Design & Standards Organization) of Indian Railways has become the FIRST Institution to be declared SDO(Standard Developing Organization) under the “One Nation One Standard ” mission of BIS ( Bureau of Indian Standards).
Headquarters: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
- Research Designs & Standards Organization (RDSO) is the sole R&D Wing of the Ministry of Railways.
- It is one of India’s leading Standard formulating Body undertaking standardization work for the railway sector.
- It functions as a technical adviser and consultant to the Railway Board, the Zonal Railways, the Railway Production Units, RITES, RailTel and Ircon International in respect of design and standardization of railway equipment and problems related to railway construction, operations and maintenance
One Nation One Standard Mission:
- The ‘One Nation One Standard’ Mission was first deliberated in September, 2019.
- The mission was envisioned on the line of ‘one nation, one ration card’ scheme in order to ensure quality products in the country.
- The purpose is to converge multiple standards with the BIS which is a recognised national body for standardisation in India.
Objectives of the mission:
- No one should feel the need to go abroad to get a quality certification.
- Lab testing in India should be of world standards. Modern equipment and the latest technologies would be used there.
- The strength and character of a nation is often exemplified by the standards it sets for the quality of its products and services.
- Bringing a national uniformity and standardization in all kinds of public procurement and tendering can be an immediate deliverable.
- The uniform national standards will help in making it mandatory for more products.
- The Bureau of Indian Standards is the national Standards Body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
- It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 which came into effect on 23 December 1986.
- The Minister in charge of the Ministry or Department having administrative control of the BIS is the ex-officio President of the BIS.
- The BIS Act, 1986 provides for the establishment of a Bureau for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for connected matters.
- BIS has its Headquarters at New Delhi.
- The Vision of BIS is to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization, Certification and Quality.
- BIS thereby plays a very important role in the economic development of the country.
- BIS also operates Certification Schemes that assure quality, safety and reliability to the users.
- The BIS Product Certification Scheme is one of the largest in the world .
- BIS gives utmost thrust for safeguarding and protecting consumer interest.
- BIS has well laid down mechanisms and procedures to address public grievances related to consumer complaints against BIS services and ISI marked products.
SOUTH WEST MONSOON
Focus: GS I- Geographical phenomenon
Why in news?
IMD announced that it expects Southwest monsoon seasonal rainfall over the country as a whole is most likely to be normal.
- Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
- Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase.
- The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains.
- India’s geography and geology are climatically pivotal: the Thar Desert in the northwest and the Himalayas in the north work in tandem to create a culturally and economically important monsoonal regime.
- As in much of the tropics, monsoonal and other weather patterns in India can be wildly unstable: epochal droughts, floods, cyclones, and other natural disasters are sporadic, but have displaced or ended millions of human lives.
Formation of Southwest monsoon rains
- The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent heat up considerably during the hot summers.
- This causes a low-pressure area over the northern and central Indian subcontinent.
- To fill this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush into the subcontinent.
- These winds, rich in moisture, are drawn towards the Himalayas.
- The Himalayas act like a high wall, blocking the winds from passing into Central Asia, and forcing them to rise.
- As the clouds rise, their temperature drops, and precipitation occurs.
Branches of Southwest monsoon winds
The moisture-laden winds on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, due to its topography, become divided into two parts: the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch.
1. The Arabian Sea Branch of the Southwest Monsoon first hits the Western Ghats of the coastal state of Kerala. This makes Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest Monsoon.
2. The Bay of Bengal Branch of Southwest Monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal heading towards North-East India and Bengal, picking up more moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The winds arrive at the Eastern Himalayas with large amounts of rain. This makes Meghalaya one of the wettest places on Earth.
Southwest Monsoon season
- The period June to September is referred to as the ‘Southwest Monsoon’ period which is the principal rainy season for the Indian subcontinent.
- The whole country receives nearly 75% of its rainfall during this period.
- The total annual rainfall is maximum over the southernmost part of the state.
Note: Tamil Nadu is considered as a rain shadow region as it lies on the eastern (leaward side) side of western ghats.
About Indian Meteorological Organization (IMD);-
- Formed in 1875, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) is the national meteorological service of the country and it is the chief government agency dealing in everything related to meteorology, seismology, and associated subjects.
- The administrative responsibilities of the Department are under the supervision of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Indian Government.
- The IMD is headquartered in New Delhi.