- ELECTORAL BONDS
- INDIA’S ACHIEVEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGET
- INDIA- US: TECHNOLOGY- BASED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
- SANKALP SMARAK
Focus: GS II- Election
About Electoral Bonds:
An electoral bond is like a promissory note that can be bought by any Indian citizen or company incorporated in India from select branches of State Bank of India.
- The citizen or corporate can then donate the same to any eligible political party of his/her choice.
- The bonds are similar to bank notes that are payable to the bearer on demand and are free of interest.
- An individual or party will be allowed to purchase these bonds digitally or through cheque.
- As per provisions of the Scheme, Electoral Bonds may be purchased by a person , who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India.
- A person being an individual can buy Electoral Bonds, either singly or jointly with other individuals.
- Only the Political Parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (43 of 1951) and which secured not less than 1% of the votes polled in the last General Election to the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of the State, shall be eligible to receive the Electoral Bonds.
- The Electoral Bonds shall be encashed by an eligible Political Party only through a Bank account with the Authorized Bank.
- The bonds are issued in multiples of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 10,000, Rs. 1 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore without any maximum limit.
- State Bank of India is authorised to issue and encash these bonds, which are valid for 15 days from the date of issuance.
INDIA’S ACHIEVEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGET
Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in News?
India has achieved its target of achieving 40% of its installed electricity capacity from non-fossil energy sources by 2030 in November 2021.
- India had committed to this target at COP 21 (UNFCCC) , as part of its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) (Paris Agreement).
What is the Paris Agreement?
- The Paris Agreement is an international treaty signed by almost all countries in the world at COP21 in Paris in 2015.
- Its aims are to keep the rise in the global average temperature to ‘well below’ 2 degrees above pre-industrial levels, ideally 1.5 degrees; strengthen the ability to adapt to climate change and build resilience; and align all finance flows with ‘a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development’.
- The Paris Agreement has a ‘bottom-up’ approach where countries themselves decide by how much they will reduce their emissions by a certain year. They communicate these targets to the UNFCCC in the form of ‘nationally determined contributions’, or ‘NDCs’.
- As part of its Nationally Determined Contributions submitted under the Paris Agreement , India has taken three quantitative climate change goals viz.
- Reduction in the emissions intensity of Gross Domestic Product by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
- Achieving about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030
- Creating an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
Renewable Energy (RE) Capacity of India:
- The country’s installed Renewable Energy (RE) capacity stands at 150.54 GW (solar: 48.55 GW, wind: 40.03 GW, Small hydro Power: 4.83, Bio-power: 10.62, Large Hydro: 46.51 GW) as on 30th Nov. 2021 while its nuclear energy based installed electricity capacity stands at 6.78 GW.
- India has the 4th largest wind power capacity in the world.
- This brings the total non-fossil based installed energy capacity to 157.32 GW which is 40.1% of the total installed electricity capacity of 392.01 GW.
- At the COP26 India is committed to achieving 500 GW of installed electricity capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by the year 2030.
INDIA- US: TECHNOLOGY- BASED ENERGY SOLUTIONS
Focus: GS II- International Relations
Why in News?
Recently, India and the US launched a programme titled ‘Technology-based Energy Solutions: Innovations for Net Zero’ to tackle climate and clean energy challenges.
- It is a programme to support India-US S&T (Science and Technology)-based entrepreneurial initiatives that address the development and implementation of next-generation clean and renewable energy, energy storage, and carbon sequestration.
- The new program aligns with the goals of the U.S.-India Strategic Clean Energy Partnership (SCEP) and will be administered by the bi-national Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF).
- The SCEP was launched in accordance with the US – India Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership announced by both countries at the Leaders’ Summit on Climate held earlier this year (2021).
- The IUSSTF is a bilateral organisation under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, and U.S. Department of State.
- It will identify and support ‘technology showstoppers’ or promising joint India-US S&T-based entrepreneurial initiatives in this area.
- Climate Change is one of the biggest challenges facing our world today, spurring the call for global collaborations to tackle this crisis.
Focus: GS I- History
Why in News?
Recently, a Sankalp Smarak was dedicated to the nation exactly 78 years (29th December 2021) after Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s arrival to India.
About Sankalp Smarak :
- The Smarak built in Andaman and Nicobar is a tribute to the resolve of the soldiers of the Indian National Army and their innumerable sacrifices.
- It is also a remainder of the values enshrined by Netaji himself, “Nishtha, Kartavya aur Balidan” or “Commitment, Duty and Sacrifice” that continue to underscore the ethos of the Indian Armed Forces and the resolve of the Indian Soldier.
- It is also significant that Netaji escaped British surveillance from Kolkata on 16th Jan 1941 and stepped back on Indian soil after nearly three years, at Port Blair Aerodrome on 29th Dec 1943.
- On 30th December 1943, he hoisted the national flag for the first time on Indian soil, at Port Blair.
- This historic visit also marked a declaration of Andaman and Nicobar Islands as the “first liberated territory of India”.
About Subash Chandra Bose Ji
- Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) Ji was born in Cuttack, in the province of Bengal to an affluent family. He was educated in Calcutta acquiring a degree in philosophy.
- He was a fierce nationalist, whose defiant patriotism made him one of the greatest freedom fighters in Indian history.
- He was selected for the Indian Civil Services (ICS) but refused to take up service since he did not want to serve the British government.
- Subhash Chandra Bose was twice elected President of the Indian National Congress, (1938-Haripur and 1939-Tripuri) the country’s most important political force for freedom from the Raj or British rule.
- He resigned from the Congress Presidentship in 1939 and organised the All India Forward Bloc a faction within the Congress in Bengal.
- In 1943 Bose lost hope that Germany could be of any help in gaining India’s independence. He then turned to Asia where he finally came at the helm of the Indian National Army (INA).
- INA found support among expatriate Indians and under its aegis Bose formed the Azad Hind government which came to produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil code. It was recognised by Axis states.
- Bose motivated the troops with his fiery speeches. His famous quote is, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!”
- Bose authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’ which covers the Indian independence movement from 1920 to 1942, the book was banned by the British government.
- He coined the term ‘Jai Hind’.
- He advocated complete Swaraj and was in favour of the use of force to gain it.
- He had differences with Gandhi and he wasn’t keen on non-violence as a tool for independence.
- His charisma and powerful personality inspired many people into the freedom struggle and continues to inspire Indians.
- Bose died of third-degree burns which he suffered in a plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945.