- Dr Rajendra Prasad
- International Day of Persons with Disabilities
- Technical Textiles
Dr RAJENDRA PRASAD
Focus: GS1;The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country
Why in News?
President of India Pays Homage to Dr Rajendra Prasad on his Birth Anniversary
About Dr Rajendra Prasad Ji
- Dr Rajendra Prasad Ji was an Indian independence activist, lawyer, scholar and subsequently, the first President of India, in office from 1950 to 1962.
- He was an Indian political leader and lawyer by training.
- He was the first President of India and served in office from 1952 to 1962.
- He was not only a great political leader but his contribution towards Indian Freedom is also noteworthy.
- He was highly influenced by the beliefs of Mahatma Gandhi and became supporter of Mahatma Gandhi’s beliefs and thinking.
- Dr Rajendra Prasad Ji played an instrumental role in forming the Bihari Students Conference at the hall of Patna College in 1906.
- Dr Rajendra Prasad Ji officially joined the Indian National Congress in 1911, during its annual session held in Calcutta.
- He was a lawyer by profession and proved to be an influential leader during the Indian freedom struggle. He left his law practice to join the movement along with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
- He was jailed multiple times by the British – once in 1931 for participating in the Salt Satyagraha Movement, and once in 1942 for being an active member of the Quit India Movement.
- He was sworn in as the President of independent India and went on to become the longest-serving head of state for 12 years.
- He died on 28th February 1963 after suffering from illness for 6 months. He spent his last few days in Sadaqat Ashram situated in Patna.
- He was the recipient of the highest national honor, the Bharat Ratna.
- To mark the 125th birth Anniversary of Dr Rajendra Prasad, RBI had coined Rs 5 coin having his photo and name at the back of the coin.
- A list of the books written by Dr. Rajendra Prasad are given below:
- Mahatma Gandhi and Bihar, Some Reminiscences
- Satyagraha at Champaran
- Division of India
- Since Independence
INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
Focus: GS 2;Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Why in News?
PM’s message on International Day of Persons with Disabilities
About PM’s Message on International Day of Persons with Disabilities
- The International Day of Persons with Disabilities is an international observance promoted by the United Nations since 1992.
- It has been observed with varying degrees of success around the planet.
- The International Day of Persons with Disabilities is observed on 3rd December.
- The UNESCO will mark the International Day of Persons with Disabilities with a week-long programme from 25 November to 3 December 2020 under the theme “Building back better: towards an inclusive, accessible and sustainable post COVID-19 world by, for and with persons with disabilities“.
- The Disability inclusion is an essential condition to upholding human rights, sustainable development, and peace and security.
- It is also central to the promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development goals (SDG) to leave no one behind.
- The commitment to realizing the rights of persons with disabilities is not only a matter of justice; it is an investment in a common future.
- The global crisis of COVID-19 is deepening pre-existing inequalities, exposing the extent of exclusion and highlighting that work on disability inclusion is imperative. People with disabilities one billion people are one of the most excluded groups in our society and are among the hardest hit in this crisis in terms of fatalities.
About Various Government Initiative Regarding for Betterment of Divyangjan
- In India, prevalence of disability (percentage of persons with disability in the population) was 2.2 per cent , with 2.3 per cent in rural and 2 per cent in urban areas.
- Among persons with disabilities of age 15 years and above, 19.3 per cent had highest educational level as secondary and above.
- The India’s 2.2% population suffering from disability: NSO survey for July-Dec 2018.
About Accessible India Campaign (AIC)
- The Accessible India Campaign (AIC) is the nationwide flagship campaign of the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPwD), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
- The Accessible India Campaign is in line with the Article 9 of UNCRPD(UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) to which India is a signatory since 2007.
- The aim of the Campaign is to make a barrier free and conducive environment for Divyangjans all over the country.
- The campaign has the vision to build an inclusive society in which equal opportunities are provided for the growth and development of Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) so that they can lead productive, safe and dignified lives.
- For creating universal accessibility for Persons with Disabilities, the campaign has been divided into three verticals Built Environment; Transport and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) ecosystem.
About Constitutional Frameworks for Disabled in India
- The Article 41 of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) states that State shall make effective provision for securing right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, within the limits of its economic capacity and development.
- The subject of ‘relief of the disabled and unemployable’ is specified in state list of the Seventh Schedule of the constitution.
About The Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016
- The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 is the disability legislation passed by the Indian Parliament to fulfill its obligation to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which India ratified in 2007.
- The Act replaced the existing Persons With Disabilities Act, 1995.
- In the RPWD Act, 2016, the list has been expanded from 7 to 21 conditions and it now also includes cerebral palsy, dwarfism, muscular dystrophy, acid attack victims, hard of hearing, speech and language disability, specific learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, chronic neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, blood disorders such as haemophilia, thalassemia, and sickle cell anaemia, and multiple disabilities.
- The Bill replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995.
- Persons with at least 40% of a disability are entitled to certain benefits such as reservations in education and employment, preference in government schemes, etc.
- The Bill confers several rights and entitlements to disabled persons.
- These include disabled friendly access to all public buildings, hospitals, modes of transport, polling stations, etc.
- In case of mentally ill persons, district courts may award two types of guardianship.
- A limited guardian takes decisions jointly with the mentally ill person.
- A plenary guardian takes decisions on behalf of the mentally ill person, without consulting him.
- Violation of any provision of the Act is punishable with imprisonment up to six months, and/or fine of Rs 10,000. Subsequent violations carry a higher penalty.
About Key Issues and Analysis of BILL
- The Bill is being brought in to fulfill obligations under an international treaty.
- The question is whether it is appropriate for Parliament to impose legal and financial obligations on states and municipalities with regard to disability, which is a State List subject.
- The Financial Memorandum does not provide any estimate of the financial resources required to meet obligations under the Bill.
- The Bill states that violation of any provision in the Act will attract imprisonment and/or fine.
- Given the widespread obligations (such as making all polling booths accessible to the disabled), many acts of omission or commission could be interpreted as criminal offences.
- In “extraordinary situations” district courts may appoint plenary guardians for mentally ill persons. The Bill does not lay down principles for such determination, in a consistent manner, across various courts.
- The Bill overrides the Mental Health Act, 1987 but the safeguards against misuse of powers by guardians are lower.
- The Bill is inconsistent with other laws in some cases.
- These include conditions for termination of pregnancy and the minimum penalty for outraging the modesty of a woman.
Focus: GS 3;Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Why in News?
Ministry of Textiles invites proposals for constitution of a Dedicated Export Promotion Council for Technical Textiles
About Technical Textiles
- The Technical Textiles are defined as Textile material and products manufactured primarily for their Technical performance and functional properties rather than aesthetic and decorative characteristics.
- The Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g., implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), and protective clothing (e.g., heat and radiation protection for fire fighter clothing, molten metal protection for welders, stab protection and bulletproof vests, and spacesuits).
Significance and Potential Applications of Technical Textiles
- The Technical Textiles are being used globally for last several decades. These materials have provided innovative projects.
- Even while Technical Textiles have been extensively used in developed as well as many developing countries, India has yet to capitalize the technical, economical and environmental benefits on large scale.
- The Various parts of India are subjected to floods and environmental degradation. In some of the terrains, the flood management and control can rely on Technical Textiles tubes, containers and bags.
- The Technical Textiles have been found to perform better than concrete as water protection component because of permeability, flexibility and ease of underwater placement.
About National Technical Textiles Mission
- The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved the establishment of a National Technical Textiles Mission to help India position itself as a “global leader“ in technical textiles.
- The Cabinet has approved a total outlay of Rs 1,480 crore for the project, which will be implemented over four years (2020-2024) and aims to promote research, export and skill development in this sector.
- An Export Promotion Council for Technical Textiles will be set up for export promotion of technical textiles and ensuring 10% average growth in exports per year upto 2023-24.
Focus: GS 2;Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Why in News?
APEDA and NABARD sign MoU to work together to synergize the activities in the interest of agriculture and allied sectors for bringing better value to the stakeholders
- The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is an apex development finance institution fully owned by Government of India.
- The bank has been entrusted with “matters concerning policy, planning, and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India”.
- The NABARD is a development bank focusing primarily on the rural sector of the country. It is the apex banking institution to provide finance for Agriculture and rural development.
- Its headquarter is located in Mumbai, the country’s financial capital.
- It is responsible for the development of the small industries, cottage industries, and any other such village or rural projects.
- It is a statutory body established in 1982 under Parliamentary act-National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981.
- The vision of NABARD is development Bank of the Nation for Fostering Rural Prosperity.
- The mission of NABARD is Promote sustainable and equitable agriculture and rural development through participative financial and non-financial interventions, innovations, technology and institutional development for securing prosperity.
- The 3-tier structure of co-operative banks includes
a) State Cooperative Banks
b) Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS)
c) District Central Cooperative Banks
- The below attached image shows the function of NABARD.
- The NABARD role in rural development in India is phenomenal.
- National Bank For Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD) is set up as an apex Development Bank by the government of india with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture, cottage and village industries.
- The Role of NABARD in overall development of India in general and rural & agricultural in specific is highly pivotal.