- Re-printed volumes of Mongolian Kanjur Manuscripts
- Six strategic bridges in Jammu & Kashmir
- CPCB: Pollution in tributaries of Ganga
Focus: GS-I Art and Culture
Why in news?
The Ministry of Culture has taken up the project of reprinting of 108 volumes of Mongolian Kanjur under the National Mission for Manuscripts (NMM).
Kanjur / Kangyur
- The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, comprising the Kangyur or Kanjur.
- Kangyur or “Translated Words” consists of works in about 108 volumes supposed to have been spoken by the Buddha himself.
- All texts presumably had a Sanskrit original, although in many cases the Tibetan text was translated from Chinese or other languages.
- Mongolian Kanjur, the Buddhist canonical text in 108 volumes is considered to be the most important religious text in Mongolia, which is translated from Tibetian.
- In the Mongolian language ‘Kanjur’ means ‘Concise Orders’- the words of Lord Buddha in particular, and they are kept in almost every monastery.
- Knajur contains over 1000 title books belonging to the ancient Indian Tripitaka or three knowledge areas such as Sutraya, Vinaya, Abhidarma concepts which represent listening, meditating and creating abilities.
Destruction and revival of Kanjur
- During the socialist period, xylographs were destroyed in flames and monasteries were bereft of their sacred scriptures.
- During 1950s, Professor Raghu Vira obtained a microfilm copy of the rare Kanjur manuscripts and brought them to India, and, the Mongolian Kanjur in 108 volumes was published in India in 1970s.
India – Mongolia and Buddhism
- Buddhism was carried to Mongolia by Indian cultural and religious ambassadors during the early Christian era.
- Buddhists form the single largest religious denomination in Mongolia.
- India established formal diplomatic relations with Mongolia in 1955.
- The publication of Mongolian Kanjur by the Government of India for the Government of Mongolia will act as a symbol of cultural symphony between India and Mongolia.
National Mission for Manuscripts (NAMAMI)
- The National Mission for Manuscripts (NAMAMI) is an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Culture, Government of India, established to survey, locate and conserve Indian manuscripts.
- Aim of NAMAMI is to create national resource base for manuscripts, for enhancing their access, awareness and use for educational purposes.
- Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) is the nodal agency for the execution of this project.
- The organisation works in the field of restoration and conservation Indian manuscripts, and their digitisation, to promote access and scholarship through research and publication.
- The Mission also runs a ‘Manuscripts Resource and Conservation Centre’, included in UNESCO’S, Memory of the World Register.
What is Manuscript?
Manuscript is a hand written records of the past on the surfaces of palm leaves, the bark of birch tree, vellum, papyrus, parchment, etc. For Example- Veda, Purana, Works of Kalidasa, Sangam Literature, Arthshastra of Kautilya etc.
Focus: GS-III Industry and Infrastructure
Why in news?
The Defence Minister dedicated six major bridges, in sensitive border areas close to the International Border (IB) and Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir, to the nation through video conferencing,
- Two bridges on the Tarnah Nallah in Kathua District and four bridges located on Akhnoor-Pallanwala road in Akhnoor/Jammu district were constructed.
- These bridges constructed by Project Sampark of the BRO will facilitate movement of Armed Forces in this strategically important sector and will also contribute towards the overall economic growth of remote border areas.
- These bridges of strategic importance were completed by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) in a record time.
- BRO has executed about 30 per cent more works in the financial year (FY) 2019-20 as compared to FY 2018-19.
Border Roads Organisation (BRO)
- The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) develops and maintains road networks in India’s border areas and friendly neighbouring countries.
- BRO is under the control of the Ministry of Defence since 2015.
- BRO is engaged in road construction to provide connectivity to difficult and inaccessible regions in the border areas of the country.
- The BRO operates in 18 Projects namely: Arunank, Beacon, Brahmank, Chetak, Deepak, Dantak, Himank, Hirak, Pushpak, Sampark, Setuk, Sewak, Shivalik, Swastik, Udayak, Vartak, Vijayak and sela tunnel.
- BRO has played a very important role in both maintenance of security and in the development of border areas.
- Socio economic development in the most inaccessible nooks and corners of our country are a result of the infrastructural work undertaken by the BRO.
- BRO works in close association with the Indian Army in cases of natural disasters.
- BRO also undertakes work in neighbouring countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Hence, it helps greatly in maintenance of friendly and diplomatic relations.
- Officers from the Border Roads Engineering Service (BRES) and personnel from the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF) form the parent cadre of the Border Roads Organisation. It is also staffed by officers and troops drawn from the Indian Army’s Corps of Engineers on extra regimental employment (on Deputation).
Focus: GS-III Environment and Ecology
Why in news?
- An inter-ministerial meeting was held where pending issues of Environment/Forest clearance of National Projects of Central Water Commission, National Water Development Agency and Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana-AIBP were discussed.
- Union Minister of Jal Shakti requested the Central Pollution Control Board to strengthen the pollution monitoring system in Ganga and its major tributaries.
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India is a Statutory Organisation under the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).
- It was established in 1970s under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act.
- CPCB is the apex organisation in country in the field of pollution control.
- It is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
- It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- It Co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and also resolves disputes among them.