- Assessment Of Wheat Crop In India
- G20 Foreign Ministers meet
GS III- Agriculture
Why in News?
A committee constituted by the Department of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare (DA&FW) to monitor the situation of Wheat crop was held recently at ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal.
- The states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh account for more than 85% of wheat acreage.
- The Committee assessed that as on date the wheat crop condition is normal in all major wheat growing states.
- Conditions that favoured normal growth of the crop:
- Large numbers of terminal heat stress tolerant varieties were developed and are now under cultivation in an estimated area of more than 50% particularly in North Western plain zone.
- About 75% area is under early and timely sowing conditions in Haryana and Punjab. Hence the crops will not be affected by heat conditions in the month of March.
- Providing necessary crop specific advisories to the farmers who are associated with either KVKs through mobile apps or with the State Agriculture Departments.
- It was decided in the meeting that all extension agencies from Central and State Governments along with ICAR/SAUs should visit the farmers’ fields regularly and provide timely advisories to the farmers, wherever heat stress conditions occur.
- Wheat is a Rabi crop that is grown from September to December and harvested from February to May.
- Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, and Gujarat are India’s top wheat-producing states.
The Climate Prerequisites for wheat
- The best wheat is grown in regions that benefit from cool, moist weather for the majority of the growing season, followed by dry, warm weather to allow the grain to ripen properly.
- Although wheat seeds can germinate in the temperature range of 5 to 35 c, the ideal temperature range for ideal germination is 20 to 25 c.
- Rainfall immediately following sowing hinders germination and promotes seedling blight. Wheat is not suitable for growing in warm, humid climates.
Soil Requirements for wheat
- Wheat cultivation is best suited to soils with a clay loam or loam texture, good structure, and a moderate water holding capacity.
- Because wheat is susceptible to water logging, heavy soils with poor structure and drainage are not recommended.
GS-II: International Relations (Important International Groupings and Agreements, Foreign Policies affecting India’s Interests)
Why in News?
The Prime Minister of India addressed the meeting of Foreign Minister of G20.
- Addressing the gathering, the Prime Minister underlined why India chose the theme of ‘One Earth, One Family, One Future’ for its G20 Presidency.
- The G20 is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union, with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
- The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of global gross domestic product, 80% of global investment, over 75% of global trade and roughly half the world’s land area.
- The members of the G20 are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
- Spain as a permanent, non-member invitee, also attends leader summits.
- India will hold the Presidency of the G20 from 1 December 2022 to 30 November 2023, culminating with the G20 Summit in India in 2023.
Structure and functioning of G20
- The G20 Presidency rotates annually according to a system that ensures a regional balance over time.
- For the selection of presidency, the 19 countries are divided into 5 groups, each having no more than 4 countries. The presidency rotates between each group.
- Every year the G20 selects a country from another group to be president.
- India is in Group 2 which also has Russia, South Africa and Turkey.
- The G20 does not have a permanent secretariat or Headquarters.
- The work of G20 is divided into two tracks:
- The Finance track comprises all meetings with G20 finance ministers and central bank governors and their deputies. Meeting several times throughout the year they focus on monetary and fiscal issues, financial regulations, etc.
- The Sherpa track focuses on broader issues such as political engagement, anti-corruption, development, energy, etc.
- Since 2008, the group convenes at least once a year, with the summits involving each member’s head of government.