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Assessment Of Wheat Crop In India


GS III- Agriculture

Why in News?

A committee constituted by the Department of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare (DA&FW) to monitor the situation of Wheat crop was held recently at ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal.

  • The states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh account for more than 85% of wheat acreage.
  • The Committee assessed that as on date the wheat crop condition is normal in all major wheat growing states.
  • Conditions that favoured normal growth of the crop:
  • Large numbers of terminal heat stress tolerant varieties were developed and are now under cultivation in an estimated area of more than 50% particularly in North Western plain zone.
  • About 75% area is under early and timely sowing conditions in Haryana and Punjab. Hence the crops will not be affected by heat conditions in the month of March.
  • Providing necessary crop specific advisories to the farmers who are associated with either KVKs through mobile apps or with the State Agriculture Departments.
  • It was decided in the meeting that all extension agencies from Central and State Governments along with ICAR/SAUs should visit the farmers’ fields regularly and provide timely advisories to the farmers, wherever heat stress conditions occur.

Wheat crop:

  • Wheat is a Rabi crop that is grown from September to December and harvested from February to May.
  • Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, and Gujarat are India’s top wheat-producing states.

The Climate Prerequisites for wheat

  • The best wheat is grown in regions that benefit from cool, moist weather for the majority of the growing season, followed by dry, warm weather to allow the grain to ripen properly.
  • Although wheat seeds can germinate in the temperature range of 5 to 35 c, the ideal temperature range for ideal germination is 20 to 25 c.
  • Rainfall immediately following sowing hinders germination and promotes seedling blight. Wheat is not suitable for growing in warm, humid climates.

Soil Requirements for wheat

  • Wheat cultivation is best suited to soils with a clay loam or loam texture, good structure, and a moderate water holding capacity.
  • Because wheat is susceptible to water logging, heavy soils with poor structure and drainage are not recommended.

March 2024