- North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme
- Blue Economy
- AMRUT – Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
- Scheme for Minority People of North Eastern States
- National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change
North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme
Focus: GS III- Indian Economy, Infrastructure
Why in News?
Under NESIDS, 110 projects worth Rs.2563.14 crore have been sanctioned in the North Eastern States so far. which are at various stages of implementation.
About North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme
Nodal: Ministry of Development of North East Region.
- It is a Central Sector Scheme, i.e., 100% of the funding will be done by the Central Government.
- It will cover infrastructure in the following areas:-
- Physical Infrastructure: Water Supply, Power, Connectivity, Tourism related projects
- Social Infrastructure: Education and Health
- NESIDS will be over and above other existing schemes of Central and State governments of the North East Region.
- To ensure focused Development of the northeast region by providing financial assistance.
- To focus on the projects of physical infrastructure associated with water systems, power connectivity, and particularly the projects promoting tourism.
- To improve the social infrastructure within areas of primary and secondary sectors of education and health.
- To promote similar growth across all the nation leaving no one behind.
- All the 8 North East Indian states, i.e., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Assam, and Sikkim.
- Such projects in these states which are not supported under any other schemes of Central or State Governments.
- The funds under NESIDS are going to be allocated to States on the idea of Normative Allocation at the start of the financial year. However, funds are going to be provided for the continued projects under NLCPR in order that they are completed by 2019-20.
- If any of the States aren’t able to soak up the funds, their allocations may be diverted to raised performing States.
- Only those projects are considered for funding under the scheme that isn’t supported under the other central or government scheme.
- The NESIDS will be implemented for three years from 2017-18 to 2019-20 at the entire outlay of Rs. 1,600 crore.
- Funds under this scheme will be distributed on the criteria based on certain parameters like Area, Population, Human Development Index, Road density, etc.
- Projects will be sanctioned through block grants of the Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources(NLCPR) through 90% on central funding and 10% on contributions by states.
- The government agencies execute the identified projects under the NLCPR schemes.
- It will ensure focused Development of the northeast region by providing financial assistance.
- It will improve the physical infrastructure associated with water systems, power connectivity, and also the projects promoting tourism.
- It will improve social infrastructure within areas of primary and secondary sectors of education and health.
- It will ensure that no region is left behind in terms of growth.
Focus: GS III- Conservation, Environmental pollution and degradation.
Why in News?
Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, said that the Government of India’s Vision of New India by 2030 highlighted the Blue Economy as the sixth dimension of its vision.
About Blue Economy
- Blue economy is a term in economics relating to the exploitation and preservation of the marine environment.
- It is the sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs, and ocean ecosystem health.
- Blue economy in India is the sum total of economic activities sourced from marine resources i.e. Fisheries, deep sea mining, and offshore oil and gas make up a large section of India’s blue economy.
- The blue economy has its origins in the green economy concept.
- Green economy strategies tend to focus on the sectors of energy, transport, sometimes agriculture and forestry, while the blue economy focuses on fisheries sectors and marine and coastal resources.
- It advocates the greening of ocean development strategies for higher productivity and conservation of ocean’s health.
- Blue Economy emphasizes on integration of development of ocean economy with social inclusion, environmental sustainability, combined with innovative business model.
- This is reflected in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 14), which calls to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
The following seven thematic areas or pillars are identified:
- National accounting framework for the blue economy and ocean governance.
- Coastal Marine Spatial Planning and Tourism.
- Marine fisheries, aquaculture, and fish processing.
- Manufacturing, Emerging industries, trade, technology, services, and skill development.
- Logistics, infrastructure and shipping, including trans-shipments.
- Coastal and deep-sea mining and offshore energy.
- Security, strategic dimensions, and international engagement
Significance of Blue Economy
- The development of Blue Economy can serve as a growth catalyst in realizing the vision to become a $10 trillion economy by 2032.
- Additionally, the Indian Ocean Region is of strategic importance to India’s economic growth as the most of the country’s oil, and gas is imported through the sea.
- A Sustainable Blue Economy can help to achieve commitments under UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2030, Paris climate agreement 2015 and the UN Ocean Conference 2017.
- Climate Regulation
- Economic Development
Challenges to Blue Economy
- Unsustainable development near marine areas
- Marine pollution
- Impacts of climate change
- Geopolitical issues
- Unfair trade practices
- Other non-conventional threats
AMRUT – Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
Focus: Government policies and Interventions
Why in News?
AMRUT 2.0 will promote circular economy of water through development of City Water Balance Plan (CWBP) for each city focusing on recycle/reuse of treated sewage, rejuvenation of water bodies and water conservation.
AMRUT – Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
- Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme that was launched in 2015, by the Housing and Urban Affairs.
- AMRUT aims to ensure that every household has access to a tap with the assured supply of water and a sewerage connection.
- The Priority zone of the Mission is water supply followed by sewerage.
- AMRUT also aims to reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport and to increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery and well-maintained open spaces.
- An Apex Committee (AC), chaired by the Secretary, MoHUA and comprising representatives of related Ministries and organisations supervises the Mission.
Components of AMRUT
- Capacity building,
- Reform implementation,
- Water supply,
- Sewerage and septage management,
- Storm water drainage,
- Urban transport and
- Development of green spaces and parks.
The reforms aim at improving delivery of citizen services, bringing down the cost of delivery, improving financial health, augmenting resources and enhancing transparency. It also includes replacement of street lights with LED lights.
- AMRUT 2.0 aims to provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 urban local bodies by providing about 2.68 crore tap connections and 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities by providing around 2.64 crore sewer/ septage connections, which will benefit more than 10.5 crore people in urban areas.
- AMRUT 2.0 will adopt the principles of circular economy and promote conservation and rejuvenation of surface and groundwater bodies.
- It will help cities to identify scope for projects focusing on universal coverage of functional water tap connections, water source conservation, rejuvenation of water bodies and wells, recycle/reuse of treated used water, and rainwater harvesting.
- Based on the projects identified in CWBP, Mission envisages to make cities ‘water secure’ through circular economy of water.
- Mission also has a reform agenda on ease of living of citizens through reduction of non-revenue water, recycle of treated used water, rejuvenation of water bodies, augmenting double entryaccounting system, urban planning, strengthening urban finance etc.
- The outlay of AMRUT 2.0 is around ₹2.87 lakh crore.
Other components of AMRUT 2.0 are:
- Pey Jal Survekshan to ascertain equitable distribution of water, reuse of wastewater, mapping of water bodies and promote healthy competition among the cities /towns.
- Technology Sub-Mission for water to leverage latest global technologies in the field of water.
- Information, Education and Communication (IEC) campaign to spread awareness among masses about conservation of water.
Scheme for Minority People of North Eastern States
Focus: GS II- Governance, Minorities
Why in News?
The Government has implemented various schemes for the welfare and upliftment of every section of the society including minorities especially the economically weaker & lesser privileged sections of the society.
Educational Empowerment Schemes:
- Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme- Scholarship is provided to minority students from Class I to X, out of which 30% scholarship are earmarked for girls.
- Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme- Scholarship is provided to minority students from Class XI to PhD., out of which 30% scholarship are earmarked for girls.
- Merit-cum-Means based Scholarship Scheme- Scholarship is provided to minority students for Professional and Technical courses, at Under Graduate and Post Graduate level, out of which 30% scholarship are earmarked for girls.
- All the three Scholarship schemes are on boarded on the National Scholarship Portal (NSP) and the scholarship amount is disbursed through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) mode.
- Maulana Azad National Fellowship Scheme – Under the scheme fellowship in the form of financial assistance is provided to minority candidates who clear the UGC-NET or Joint CSIR UGCNET examination.
- Naya Savera – Free Coaching and Allied Scheme – The Scheme aims to provide free coaching to students/candidates belonging to minority communities for qualifying in entrance examinations of technical/ medical professional courses and various Competitive examinations.
- Padho Pardesh – Under the scheme interest subsidy is provided to students of minority communities on educational loans, for overseas higher studies.
- Nai Udaan – Support is provided to minority candidates clearing Preliminary examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), State Public Service Commission (PSC), Staff Selection Commission (SSC) etc.
Employment Oriented Schemes:
- Seekho Aur Kamao – Skill development scheme for youth of 14 – 35 years age group and aiming at providing employment and employment opportunities, improving the employability of existing workers, school dropouts etc.
- USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)– An effective platform to provide self-employment, market and opportunity to traditional artisans and craft persons from the minority communities. Hunar Haats are being organised across the country to provide employment opportunities and markets to artisans/craftsmen.
- Nai Manzil – A scheme for formal school education & skilling of school dropouts or educated in community educational institutions like Madrasas.
- Nai Roshni – Leadership development of women belonging to minority communities and non-minority communities (not exceeding 25% of each batch).
- Jiyo Parsi – Scheme for containing population decline of Parsis in India.
- Hamari Dharohar– A scheme to preserve rich heritage of minority communities of India under the overall concept of Indian culture.
Infrastructure Development Programme:
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) – The scheme aims to provide basic infrastructure such as Schools, Colleges, ITIs, Polytechnics, Hostels, Sadbhav Mandap, Skill Development Centres, Drinking water and Sanitation facilities, Health Projects including hospitals, Sport facilities, Smart classrooms, Aanganwadi Centers etc. in deprived areas of the country. The scheme is implemented in the identified areas having minimum of 25% minority population and backwardness parameters below the national average in respect of socio economic or basic amenities or both.
- Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) implements education and skill related schemes as follows:-
- (a) Begum Hazratmahal National Scholarship formeritorious Girls belonging to the economically weaker sections of Minorities
- (b) Gharib Nawaz Employment Scheme started in 2017-18 for providing short term job oriented skill development training to youth (c) Grant-in-aid to NGOs for infrastructure development of educational institutions.
- Equity to National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC) for providing concessional loans to minorities for self-employment and income generating ventures.
National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change
Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in News?
NAFCC is implemented in project mode and 30 projects are sanctioned in 27 States and UT’s till date,.
About National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)
- The National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) was established in August, 2015 to meet the cost of adaptation to climate change for the State and Union Territories of India that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
- Under NAFCC 100% central grant is provided to the State Governments for implementing climate change adaptation projects.
- The projects under NAFCC prioritizes the needs that builds climate resilience in the areas identified under the SAPCC (State Action Plan on Climate Change) and the relevant Missions under NAPCC (National Action Plan on Climate Change).
- NABARD has been designated as National Implementing Entity (NIE) for implementation of adaptation projects under NAFCC by Govt. of India.
- Under this arrangement, NABARD would perform roles in facilitating identification of project ideas/concepts from State Action Plan for Climate Change (SAPCC), project formulation, appraisal, sanction, disbursement of fund, monitoring & evaluation and capacity building of stakeholders including State Governments.