- India Rankings 2023
- Statehood Day of Telangana
Focus: GS II: Education
Why in News?
Minister of State for Education and External Affairs released the India Rankings 2023, which implements the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) drafted for this purpose by the Ministry of Education in 2015.
Key Highlights of India Rankings 2023
- Indian Institute of Technology Madras retains its 1st position in Overall Category for fifth consecutive year, i.e. 2019 to 2023 and in Engineering for eighth consecutive year, , i.e. from 2016 to 2023..
- Top 100 in Overall category consists of 44 CFTIs/ CFUs INI, 24 state universities, 13 deemed universities, 18 private universities, 4 agriculture and allied sector institutions, and 3 management institutions.
- Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru tops the Universities Category for eighth consecutive years, i.e. from 2016 to 2023. It stood first in Research Institutions Category for the third consecutive year, i.e. from 2021 to 2023.
- IIM Ahmedabad tops in Management subject retaining its first position for fourth consecutive year, i.e. from 2020 to 2023. It was ranked amongst top two in Management subject of the India Rankings from 2016 to 2019.
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi occupies the top slot in Medical for the sixth consecutive year, i.e. from 2018 to 2023. Moreover, AIIMS is ranked at 6th position in Overall category thereby improving from its 9th position in 2022.
- National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad tops the ranking in Pharmacy for first time pushing Jamia Hamdard to the second slot. Jamia Hamdard was ranked at 1st position for four consecutive years, i.e., from 2019 to 2022.
- Miranda House retains the 1st position amongst Colleges for the seventh consecutive year, i.e. from 2017 to 2023.
- IIT Roorkee stands at 1st position in Architecture subject for third consecutive year, i.e. from 2021 to 2023.
- National Law School of India University, Bengaluru retains its first position in Law for the sixth consecutive year, i.e. from 2018 to 2023
- Colleges in Delhi maintained their dominance in ranking of Colleges with five colleges out of first 10 colleges from Delhi.
- The Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences takes the top slot for the second consecutive year.
- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi takes the top slot in Agriculture and Allied Sectors.
- Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur tops in Innovation category.
- The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) is a methodology adopted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, to rank institutions of higher education in India.
- There are separate rankings for different types of institutions depending on their areas of operation like universities and colleges, engineering institutions, management institutions, pharmacy institutions and architecture institutions.
- The ranking framework evaluates institutions on five broad generic groups of parameters, i.e.
- Teaching, Learning and Resources (TLR),
- Research and Professional Practice (RP),
- Graduation Outcomes (GO),
- Outreach and Inclusivity (OI)
- Perception (PR).
- Rankings help universities to improve their performance on various ranking parameters and identify gaps in research and areas of improvement.
Focus: GS II- Polity
Why in News?
The Prime Minister of India greeted the people of Telangana on Statehood Day (2nd June).
- On 2nd June, 2014 the north western part of Andhra Pradesh was separated and 29th state Telangana was created with Hyderabad as its capital.
- The Andhra State Act (1953) formed the first linguistic state of India, known as the state of Andhra, by taking out the Telugu speaking areas from the State of Madras (now Tamil Nadu).
- The States Reorganisation Act (1956) merged the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad state with the Andhra state to create the enlarged Andhra Pradesh state.
- The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act (2014) bifurcated Andhra Pradesh into two separate states, namely, the Andhra Pradesh (residuary) and the Telangana.
Telangana region after Independence
- When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Present region of Telangana was a part of the Hyderabad Princely State.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent.
- The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo – The Nizam’s army surrendered and India then incorporated the state of Hyderabad and ended the rule of the Nizams.
- In 1956 during the reorganisation of the Indian States based along linguistic lines, the state of Hyderabad was split up among Andhra Pradesh and Bombay state (later divided into states of Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960 with the original portions of Hyderabad becoming part of the state of Maharashtra) and Karnataka.
History of Formation of Telangana
- The seeds of Telangana struggle were sown in 1955 when the recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission to retain Hyderabad as a separate State went unheeded.
- Telangana leaders accused the people of Andhra of “colonising the region” by grabbing their jobs and land, and the government of not investing in the region’s infrastructure.
- On November 1, 1956, Telangana merged with the State of Andhra, carved out of erstwhile Madras, to form Andhra Pradesh, a united-state for the Telugu-speaking populace.
- The State witnessed a violent ‘separate Telangana’ agitation in 1969 and a ‘separate Andhra’ agitation in 1972.
- Many believe it was the creation of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttaranchal (now Uttarakhand) states that spurred the demand for Telangana.
- State Bird – Palapitta (Indian Roller or Blue Jay).
- State Animal – Jinka (Deer).
- State Tree – Jammi Chettu (Prosopis Cineraria).
- State Flower – Tangedu (Tanner’s Cassia).
These icons reflect the culture and tradition of Telangana state and three of them – Tangedu flowers, Palapitta and Jammi Chettu are associated with the popular festivals of Bathukamma and Dasara, while Jinka reflects the mindset of the people of Telangana as it is very sensitive and innocent.