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PIB Summaries 10 November 2023

  1. Innovative Radiative Cooling Paint by JNCASR Researchers
  2. Legal Literacy and legal Awareness Program (LLLAP)


Researchers at the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) in Bengaluru, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology, have developed a pioneering paint leveraging radiative cooling technology. In response to rising global temperatures and the demand for sustainable cooling solutions, this cost-effective and eco-friendly paint offers a promising and effective cooling solution.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Radiative Cooling Technology: A Cooling Innovation
  2. Radiative Cooling Paint: Advancing Cooling Technology

Radiative Cooling Technology: A Cooling Innovation

  • Radiative cooling technology aims to dissipate heat from an object by releasing thermal radiation into the atmosphere, resulting in a cooler object.
  • This process achieves cool surfaces by emitting thermal radiation directly into the extremely cold universe (around 3 Kelvin) through the atmospheric transmission window (8 – 13 µm), operating without electricity.
  • In response to escalating global warming and the urban heat island effect, there is a growing demand for efficient cooling solutions.
  • Traditional active cooling devices such as air-conditioners and refrigerators consume significant electrical energy, contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and heightened surface temperatures.
  • Radiative cooling technology offers a sustainable alternative by emitting thermal radiation without electricity usage, utilizing the atmospheric transmission window.

Radiative Cooling Paint: Advancing Cooling Technology

  • Formulated from a groundbreaking magnesium oxide (MgO)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer nanocomposite.
  • Utilizes materials that are abundantly available, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly, ensuring non-toxicity.
  • Exhibits exceptional cooling capabilities, featuring high solar reflectivity and infrared thermal emissivity.
  • Integration of dielectric nanoparticles in MgO-PVDF results in remarkable solar reflectance (96.3%) and outstanding thermal emission (98.5%).
  • Specifically designed to combat rising heat impact on buildings, providing efficient cooling and reducing reliance on electricity during hot summer days.
  • Demonstrates superior optical characteristics, reducing surface temperatures by approximately 10°C under intense sunlight, surpassing the effectiveness of standard white paints.
  • Boasts a water-resistant and hydrophobic nature, facilitating easy application on diverse surfaces.
  • Ensures consistent coverage and robust adhesion, enhancing its versatility for various applications.


Legal Literacy and Legal Awareness Program (LLLAP) of the Department of Justice reaches more than 6 lakh people through 14 implementing agencies under the DISHA scheme.


GS II: Government Policies and Interventions

Legal Literacy and Legal Awareness Program

Initiation and Focus:
  • Launched by the Department of Justice (DoJ), Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India since 2012.
  • Implementation in North Eastern States (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura) and UT of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Major focus on legal empowerment of communities, dissemination of simplified Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials in local languages, and capacity development of Panchayati Raj Functionaries and Village Chiefs.
Aim and Duration:
  • Aimed at empowering the poor and disadvantaged sections of society to seek and demand justice services.
  • Program named ‘Designing Innovating Solutions and Holistic Access to Justice (DISHA)’ formulated for the period 2021 to 2026.
  • Technology Integration:
    • Utilize technology for enhanced delivery of legal literacy, Knowledge Products, and implementation of innovative and holistic ideas.
  • Mainstreaming Legal Literacy:
    • Forge partnerships across Ministries, allied Departments, Institutions, and Schools to mainstream legal literacy.
  • Capacity Building:
    • Build and enhance the capacities of existing grassroots/frontline workers and volunteers.
  • Indicator Development:
    • Develop indicators to measure legal literacy and legal awareness in India.
  • Evaluation and Assessment:
    • Conduct concurrent evaluation and assessment of Legal Literacy and Legal Awareness Programs to ensure effectiveness.

February 2024