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PIB Summaries 27 December 2023

  1. Paat Mitro
  2. X-ray Bursts


Context:

The Ministry of Textiles recently launched the “Paat-Mitro” mobile application to provide important information about MSP and agronomy to jute farmers.

Relevance:

GS II: Government Policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Paat Mitro: Empowering Jute Farmers through Technology
  2. Jute Corporation of India Limited (JCI): Key Facts

Paat Mitro: Empowering Jute Farmers through Technology

  • Origin: Developed by the Jute Corporation of India Limited (JCI).
  • Purpose: Facilitate access to crucial information on Minimum Support Prices (MSP) and agronomy for jute farmers.
Key Features:
  • Multilingual Support: Available in six languages for wider accessibility.
  • Free of Cost: All functionalities are accessible to users without any charges.
  • Comprehensive Information:
    • Provides the latest agronomic practices and MSP details.
    • Includes Jute Gradation Parameters.
    • Highlights farmer-centric schemes like ‘Jute-ICARE.’
    • Offers weather forecasts, JCI’s Purchase Centres’ locations, and Procurement Policies.
    • Enables tracking of payment status for sold raw jute under MSP Operation.

Technology Integration:

  • Incorporates advanced features like Chatbot for addressing user queries.

Jute Corporation of India Limited (JCI): Key Facts

  • Founded in 1971 as an official agency by the Government of India.
Mission and Role:
  • Objective: To provide minimum support prices (MSP) to jute cultivators.
  • Implementation: Acts as the implementing agency for various Government of India projects aimed at enhancing jute crop and improving the lives of jute growers.
Administrative Structure:
  • Control: Under the administrative purview of the Ministry of Textiles.
Geographical Presence:
  • States Covered: Operates in seven jute-growing states: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh.
Financial Structure:
  • Capital: Authorized and paid-up capital of Rs. 5 crore.
Procurement Policy:
  • Quantitative Commitment: Obliged to purchase any quantity of jute offered by growers at support rates without any quantitative limit.
  • Government Support: Losses incurred during policy implementation are reimbursed by the Government of India.


Context:

Recently, India’s first multi-wavelength space-based observatory AstroSat has detected bright sub-second X-ray bursts from a new and unique neutron star with ultrahigh magnetic field (magnetar).

Relevance:

GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. X-ray Bursts in Low-Mass X-ray Binary Systems
  2. Magnetar: Neutron Star with Ultra-Powerful Magnetic Field

X-ray Bursts in Low-Mass X-ray Binary Systems

Characteristics:
  • Location: Occurs in low-mass X-ray binary systems.
  • Participants: Involves a neutron star and a low-mass main sequence star orbiting each other closely.
Process:
  • Accretion Disk Formation: Companion star overflows its roche-lobe, leading to the formation of an accretion disk around the neutron star.
  • Hydrogen Transfer: Hydrogen from the companion star is drawn into the accretion disk and deposited on the neutron star’s surface.
  • Helium Conversion: Extreme temperatures and pressures cause hydrogen to be immediately converted into helium on the neutron star’s surface.
  • Helium Build-up: A thin surface layer of helium accumulates until a critical mass is reached.
  • Explosive Ignition: Helium ignition results in an explosive release of X-rays, heating the neutron star’s surface to several tens of millions of degrees.
Recurrence:
  • Recurrent Bursts: The binary system temporarily returns to a quiescent state, and the neutron star begins to re-accumulate the helium surface layer, leading to recurrent X-ray bursts.
  • Interval: Generally occurs at regular intervals, separated by several hours or days.

Magnetar: Neutron Star with Ultra-Powerful Magnetic Field

Definition:
  • Type: Exotic neutron star.
  • Characteristic: Possesses an ultra-powerful magnetic field.
Magnetic Field Strength:
  • Comparison: Magnetic field is about 1,000 times stronger than a normal neutron star and a trillion times stronger than Earth’s.
Energy Release:
  • Associated Events: Releases vast amounts of energy in the form of flares, X-rays, and gamma-ray bursts.
  • Extreme Events: Often associated with extreme cosmic events, making them among the most peculiar objects in the universe next to black holes.
Magnetic Field Origin:
  • Hypothesis: Magnetic field strength may result from the neutron star’s interior, composed of neutrons, quarks, and exotic states of matter, becoming a superconducting fluid.

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