- Republic Day
Focus: GS I- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
Why in News?
PM has greeted nation on Republic Day.
About Republic Day
- Republic Day is a national holiday in India.
- It honours the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act as the governing document of India and thus, turning the nation into a newly formed republic.
- India recently celebrated its 73rd Republic Day which is celebrated every year on 26th January 2021.
- For the second consecutive year, the celebrations were held without a chief guest due to the pandemic, which has seen a surge in cases of the Omicron variant.
- The word republic is derived from the Latin phrase- RES PUBLICA meaning ‘public affair’ which is the root of the word republic.
- On 15 August 1947, India got independence, and that time India was headed by King George VI till the Constitution of India came into force that is on 26 January, 1950.
- This is the day when India declared itself a democratic republic nation.
- The first President of India was Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
About Significance of choosing January 26th
- The Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, a date specially chosen to coincide with the anniversary of ‘Purna Swaraj Diwas’.
- January 26, 1930 was marked as ‘Purna Swaraj Diwas’, or the day the nation would attain complete freedom from its colonizers by the Congress.
- The members of the drafting committee felt that the birth of the constitution should be observed on a day that held some significance in their fight for independence.
- When India was ultimately granted freedom by the British in 1947, but on August 15 and not January 26, the date was instead assigned to celebrating India’s Republic Day.
- This was the day the Indian Independence Act was consequently repealed and India was established as a democratic republic, no longer a dominion of the British Crown.
- Ever since the remarkable day, 26th January is distinguished with festivities & patriotic zeal all around the nation.
- The day owes its significance to the Indian constitution that was espoused on this day.
Focus: GS I- Art and Culture
Why in News?
The Prime Minister has expressed deep grief over the demise of noted Kathakali dancer Ms. Milena Salvini.
- Kathakali, is an art form of Kerala.
- It has been described as a true representation of the artistic traditions of India and one of the most magnificent theatres of the imagination.
- It originated in the state of Kerala and the Kathakali dancers perform a group presentation, in which they act upon various roles which are traditionally based on themes from sacred Hindu mythology, especially the two epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
- The most outstanding feature of Kathakali is its dramatic quality, even though the characters never speak.
- It is accompanied by musical compositions, involving dialogues, narration and continuity.
- The costume is the most distinctive characteristic of Kathakali.
- The makeup is very elaborate and the costumes are very large and heavy.
The 5 major roles or veshams are given below.
- Pacha (Green) – To portray noble characters like kings and divine beings
- Kathi (Knife) – To portray arrogant and evil characters.
- Kari (Black) – Used to portray evil characters.
- Thaadi (Beard) – There are 3 different types in this category.
- Minukku (Radiant) – To portray spiritual characters like sages.
Other Classical Dances in India
- Bharatanatyam from Tamil Nadu
- Kathakali, from Kerala.
- Kuchipudi, from Andhra Pradesh.
- Odissi, from Odisha.
- Sattriya, from Assam.
- Manipuri, from Manipur.
- Mohiniyattam, from Kerala
The term “classical” was introduced by Sangeet Natak Akademi to denote the Natya Shastra-based performing art styles. These are described as below:-