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PIB Summaries 27 November 2023

  1. 2D Protein Monolayer Unravels Amyloidosis
  2. Lachit Borphukan


Recently, researchers have achieved a significant breakthrough in disease study through the creation of a two-dimensional (2D) protein monolayer using lysozyme molecules.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Major Highlights of the Research
  2. Lysozyme
  3. Amyloidosis

Major Highlights of the Research

Molecular Assembly:

  • Scientists assembled lysozyme molecules into a 2D monolayer at the interface of a pure water subphase.

Model for Amyloidosis:

  • The arranged layers of lysozyme provide a unique model for investigating the complexities of Amyloidosis.

Langmuir-Blodgett Technique:

  • Utilized the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to create specialized two-dimensional protein layers.
  • This technique involves forming monolayers of molecules, including proteins, at air-water and air-solid interfaces.

pH-Dependent Changes:

  • Observed changes in the structure and shape of lysozyme molecules under different pH conditions.
  • These changes mirror abnormalities seen in Amyloidosis.

Research Significance:

  • Offers deeper insights into Amyloidosis, contributing to a better understanding of disease mechanisms.
  • Establishes a versatile platform for exploring nanotechnology applications in protein science.


  • Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme present in bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, and mucus.
Defensive Role:
  • Plays a vital role in the body’s defense system by combating bacteria.
  • Acts by breaking down the cell walls of specific bacteria, disrupting their structure and leading to destruction.
Airway Fluid Component:
  • Principal component of airway fluid.
  • Serves as a model protein in the study of diseases like Amyloidosis, associated with multi-organ dysfunction.


  • Amyloidosis encompasses a set of uncommon disorders marked by the buildup of anomalous protein aggregates known as amyloids in diverse organs and tissues across the body.
  • Comprising misfolded proteins, these amyloid formations can interfere with the regular functioning of organs such as the heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen, leading to gradual damage over time.


Recently, the Prime Minister of India paid tribute to Lachit Borphukan on Lachit Diwas.


Facts for Prelims

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Lachit Borphukan
  2. Ahom Kingdom Overview

Lachit Borphukan:

  • Revered in Assam for his pivotal role in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671 against the Mughals.
  • Served as the commander of Ahom armies, displaying exceptional military prowess.
Battle of Saraighat:
  • Fought on the banks of the Brahmaputra in Guwahati.
  • Successfully employed guerrilla tactics, providing an advantage to his smaller, agile forces.
Administrative Responsibilities:
  • Chosen as one of the five Borphukans by King Charadhwaj Singha.
  • Entrusted with administrative, judicial, and military duties, showcasing his multifaceted capabilities.
Military Strategy:
  • Known for preferring guerrilla tactics, showcasing strategic acumen.
  • Led fast-moving and highly capable forces, contributing to the success of the Ahom armies.
  • Revered as a brilliant military commander who played a pivotal role in preserving Assam’s independence.
  • Succumbed to a prolonged illness a year after the Battle of Saraighat.

Ahom Kingdom Overview:

  • Ruled significant parts of present-day Assam for nearly 600 years, from the early 13th century to the early 19th century.
  • Flourished as a prosperous, multi-ethnic kingdom in the Brahmaputra valley, sustaining on rice cultivation in fertile lands.
  • Engaged in conflicts with the Mughals from 1615-1682, spanning the reigns of Jahangir to Aurangzeb.

March 2024