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PIB Summaries 27 November 2023

  1. 2D Protein Monolayer Unravels Amyloidosis
  2. Lachit Borphukan


Context:

Recently, researchers have achieved a significant breakthrough in disease study through the creation of a two-dimensional (2D) protein monolayer using lysozyme molecules.

Relevance:

GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Major Highlights of the Research
  2. Lysozyme
  3. Amyloidosis

Major Highlights of the Research

Molecular Assembly:

  • Scientists assembled lysozyme molecules into a 2D monolayer at the interface of a pure water subphase.

Model for Amyloidosis:

  • The arranged layers of lysozyme provide a unique model for investigating the complexities of Amyloidosis.

Langmuir-Blodgett Technique:

  • Utilized the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to create specialized two-dimensional protein layers.
  • This technique involves forming monolayers of molecules, including proteins, at air-water and air-solid interfaces.

pH-Dependent Changes:

  • Observed changes in the structure and shape of lysozyme molecules under different pH conditions.
  • These changes mirror abnormalities seen in Amyloidosis.

Research Significance:

  • Offers deeper insights into Amyloidosis, contributing to a better understanding of disease mechanisms.
  • Establishes a versatile platform for exploring nanotechnology applications in protein science.

Lysozyme:

  • Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme present in bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, and mucus.
Defensive Role:
  • Plays a vital role in the body’s defense system by combating bacteria.
  • Acts by breaking down the cell walls of specific bacteria, disrupting their structure and leading to destruction.
Airway Fluid Component:
  • Principal component of airway fluid.
  • Serves as a model protein in the study of diseases like Amyloidosis, associated with multi-organ dysfunction.

Amyloidosis

  • Amyloidosis encompasses a set of uncommon disorders marked by the buildup of anomalous protein aggregates known as amyloids in diverse organs and tissues across the body.
  • Comprising misfolded proteins, these amyloid formations can interfere with the regular functioning of organs such as the heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen, leading to gradual damage over time.


Context:

Recently, the Prime Minister of India paid tribute to Lachit Borphukan on Lachit Diwas.

Relevance:

Facts for Prelims

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Lachit Borphukan
  2. Ahom Kingdom Overview

Lachit Borphukan:

  • Revered in Assam for his pivotal role in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671 against the Mughals.
  • Served as the commander of Ahom armies, displaying exceptional military prowess.
Battle of Saraighat:
  • Fought on the banks of the Brahmaputra in Guwahati.
  • Successfully employed guerrilla tactics, providing an advantage to his smaller, agile forces.
Administrative Responsibilities:
  • Chosen as one of the five Borphukans by King Charadhwaj Singha.
  • Entrusted with administrative, judicial, and military duties, showcasing his multifaceted capabilities.
Military Strategy:
  • Known for preferring guerrilla tactics, showcasing strategic acumen.
  • Led fast-moving and highly capable forces, contributing to the success of the Ahom armies.
Legacy:
  • Revered as a brilliant military commander who played a pivotal role in preserving Assam’s independence.
  • Succumbed to a prolonged illness a year after the Battle of Saraighat.

Ahom Kingdom Overview:

  • Ruled significant parts of present-day Assam for nearly 600 years, from the early 13th century to the early 19th century.
  • Flourished as a prosperous, multi-ethnic kingdom in the Brahmaputra valley, sustaining on rice cultivation in fertile lands.
  • Engaged in conflicts with the Mughals from 1615-1682, spanning the reigns of Jahangir to Aurangzeb.

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