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PIB Summaries 28 January 2023

CONTENTS

  1. Fundamental duties
  2. International Customs Day, 2023
  3. Open Market Sale Scheme

Fundamental Duties


Focus: GS II- Polity (Indian Constitution)

Why in News?

The Vice President called upon the youth to  practise and follow Fundamental Duties in the Constitution, while exercising their Fundamental Rights.

How were the fundamental duties incorporated in the Constitution?

  • The fundamental duties were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976, during Indira Gandhi’s Emergency.
  • Article 51(A) describes 11 fundamental duties — 10 came with the 42nd Amendment; the 11th was added by the 86th Amendment in 2002, when Atal Bihari Vajpayee was Prime Minister.
  • These duties are not enforceable by law.
    • However, a court may take them into account while adjudicating on a matter.
  • They were made a part of the Constitution to emphasise the obligation of the citizen in return for the fundamental rights that he or she enjoys.

What are the fundamental duties of the citizen?

Article 51(A) says it shall be the duty of every citizen of India:

  • to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
  • to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  •  to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  • to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  • to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  • to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  • to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  • to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
  • who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

The last subsection, (k), on the education of children, was added in 2002 by The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act. The same amendment also introduced Article 21A in the Constitution: “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.”


International Customs Day, 2023


Focus: GS II- Important International institutions.

Why in News?

Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs celebrated International Customs Day, 2023

International Customs Day, 2023:

  • Theme of International Customs Day, 2023 is ‘Nurturing the next generation: Promoting a culture of knowledge-sharing and professional pride in Customs’ which is set with an aim to increase a sense of belonging to the world’s Customs community.
  • January 26 marks the celebration of International Customs Day (ICD) all across the world with the United Nations as the host.
  • It is an annual event that is meant to acknowledge and appreciate the role that customs officials and agencies play in ensuring the smooth flow of goods across the world borders.
  • The endeavour is to emphasise the working conditions and challenges that customs officers face in their jobs.

About World Customs Organization

  • The World Customs Organization is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
  • WPO is noted for its work in areas covering international conferences, equipment, and equipment development, commodity classification, evaluation, collection of rules of origin, customs revenue, and other topics.
  • The WTO takes account of the naming of International Relevant System (HS) goods, the technical aspects of the Trade Organisation (WTO), customs assessment, and rules of origin.
  • The WCO’s primary objective is to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of member customs administrations, thereby assisting them to contribute successfully to national development goals, particularly revenue collection, national security, trade facilitation, community protection, and collection of trade statistics.

Open Market Sale Scheme


Focus: GS II: Government Schemes

Why in News?

The Food Corporation of India (FCI) will off load 30 LMT wheat from the Central pool stock to the market through various routes under the Open Market Sale Scheme (Domestic).

About Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS)

  • The Food Corporation of India (FCI) regularly conducts e-auctions to dispose of surplus stocks of wheat and rice.
  • The purpose of the Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS) is to enhance the supply of food grains, as well as to regulate prices in the open market.
  • FCI conducts weekly auctions for OMSS wheat on the National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) platform.
  • NCDEX is a commodity exchange platform in India that provides trading opportunities for various agricultural and other commodities.

Food Corporation of India

  • The Food Corporation of India (FCI) is a government-owned corporation that manages the food security system in India.
  • FCI was established in 1965 under the Food Corporation’s Act 1964 with the main objective of ensuring adequate availability of food grains throughout the country and maintaining price stability in the market.
  • FCI also maintains buffer stocks of food grains to ensure food security during times of scarcity or crisis.
  • FCI is responsible for distributing foodgrains throughout the country for public distribution system.
  • As part of its activities, FCI conducts e-auction as one of the methods to dispose of its surplus food grains.

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