Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry

PIB Summaries 28 July 2023


  1. Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North-East  (PM-DevINE)
  2. Hematene
  3. STARFIRE Algorithm

Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North-East  (PM-DevINE)

Focus: GS II- Governance

Why in News?

The Union Ministry for the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region provided recent updates on the Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North Eastern Region (PM-DevINE).

About Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North-East  (PM-DevINE)

  • PM-DevINE is a Central Sector Scheme with 100% Central funding and will be implemented by Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER).
  • The PM-DevINE Scheme will have an outlay of Rs.6,600 crore for the four year period from 2022-23 to 2025-26 (remaining years of 15th Finance Commission period).
    • Efforts will be made to complete the PM-DevINE projects by 2025-26 so that there are no committed liabilities beyond this year.
    • This implies front-loading of the sanctions under the Scheme in 2022-23 and 2023-24 primarily.
    • While expenditure would continue to be incurred during 2024-25 and 2025-26, focused attention will be given to complete the sanctioned PM-DevINE projects.
  • To limit construction risks of time and cost overrun, falling on the Government projects would be implemented on Engineering-procurement-Construction (EPC) basis, to the extent possible.
  • However, it will not be a substitute for existing central or state Schemes.


PM-DevINE will lead to creation of infrastructure, support industries, social development projects and create livelihood activities for youth and women, thus leading to employment generation.


  • PM-DevINE will be implemented by Ministry of DoNER through North Eastern Council or Central Ministries/ agencies.
  • Measures would be taken to ensure adequate operation and maintenance of the projects sanctioned under PM-DevINE so that they are sustainable.
  • Fund infrastructure convergently, in the spirit of PM Gati Shakti;
  • Support social development projects based on felt needs of the NER;
  • Enable livelihood activities for youth and women;
  • Fill the development gaps in various sectors.


Focus: GS III: Science and Technology

Why in News?

Researchers have come up with a new and highly efficient optical limiter using a novel 2D material, ‘hematene’.

Key Findings: Hematene Nanoflakes for Optical Limiters

  • Hematene Nanoflakes’ Potential: Nanoflakes of hematene, extracted from iron ore (hematite), have been discovered to withstand and shield from high laser intensities effectively.
  • Optical Limiters Application: Hematene nanoflakes can be used to create optical limiters, devices that protect sensitive optical equipment from light-induced damage.
  • Protection Against Laser Radiation: Laser sources emit concentrated and powerful radiation that can be harmful to optical devices such as sensors, detectors, etc.
  • Control of Light Transmission: Optical limiters control the amount of light passing through them, thereby preventing damage to optical components when the input intensity increases.
  • Applications: Optical limiters find utility in various fields, including laser technologies, military applications, telecommunications, aircraft, and scientific research.

Key Facts about Hematene:

  • Source: Hematene is extracted from naturally occurring hematite, which is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide. The extraction process involves sonication, centrifugation, and vacuum-assisted filtration.
  • Thickness and Photocatalysis: Hematene measures just three atoms thick and exhibits more efficient photocatalysis.
  • Ferromagnetic Properties: Hematene displays ferromagnetic properties, making it behave like a common magnet.
  • Performance in Optical Limiting: Hematene nanoflakes demonstrate exceptional optical limiting of green laser light (532 nm) while maintaining a high linear transmission (about 87%) for low-intensity light.

STARFIRE Algorithm

Focus: GS III: Science and Technology

Why in News?

Recently, Scientists at Raman Research Institute (RRI), an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology have developed an algorithm names STARFIRE to tackle unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in space, enriching data obtained from space-based astronomy missions.

STARFIRE: Revolutionizing Space-Based Astronomy with Advanced RFI Estimation

  • STARFIRE (Simulation of TerrestriAl Radio Frequency Interference in oRbits around Earth) is an advanced algorithm developed to estimate and map unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) signals in space.
  • To develop this algorithm, scientists utilized data on FM transmitter stations from six countries, including Canada, the USA, Japan, Australia, Germany, and South Africa.
Its applications and potential impact on space-based Astronomy missions are remarkable:
  • Estimation and Identification of RFI: STARFIRE can estimate and identify RFI emitted by various sources, such as FM radio stations, Wi-Fi networks, mobile towers, radar, satellites, and communication devices.
  • Enriching Space-Based Astronomy Missions: By mitigating unwanted RFI signals, STARFIRE revolutionizes space-based Astronomy missions, enhancing data quality and insights into the early Universe.
  • Early Universe Studies: The algorithm aids astronomers in studying the early Universe by estimating and mapping unwanted RFI signals in space.
  • Tuning Radio Antennas: STARFIRE enables tuning radio antennas within the 40 to 200 MHz range to detect the 21-cm hydrogen line, revealing cosmic secrets.
  • Designing Instruments for Space-Based Missions: The algorithm helps design instruments that operate optimally in the presence of RFI, leading to improved data collection and analysis.
  • Application in PRATUSH Mission: STARFIRE is utilized in missions like PRATUSH, which studies the birth of stars and galaxies using the 21-cm hydrogen line from the far side of the moon.
  • Antenna and Instrument Fine-Tuning: STARFIRE plays a crucial role in fine-tuning antennas and instrument components for successful data gathering.
  • Orbit Selection for Future Missions: The algorithm aids in identifying low RFI orbits, particularly in the ~100 MHz frequency range, making them suitable for scientific experiments.
  • Flexibility in Antenna Properties: STARFIRE allows adjusting properties of transmitting and receiving antennas, facilitating meaningful experimental results from astrophysical radio signals.
  • Adaptable Mathematical Formulation: STARFIRE’s generic mathematical formulation makes it adaptable for various applications, benefiting missions with low RFI orbits.

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

  • RFI is a form of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that impacts devices or circuits operating with radio frequencies.
  • Impact on Space Systems: RFI in space can significantly affect the quality and reliability of satellite communications, navigation systems, and remote sensing equipment.
  • Interference with Scientific Instruments: Space-based instruments, such as radio telescopes and radars, can also be affected by RFI, leading to interference with scientific observations and measurements.
  • Ensuring RFI-free space environments is crucial for the smooth functioning of various space-based systems and to enable accurate scientific exploration and data gathering.
  • Efforts to mitigate RFI are essential to enhance the overall performance and reliability of space missions and research.

February 2024