- Green Hydrogen
- Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
Focus: GS III- Environment
Why in News?
A new report released today by NITI Aayog highlights that green hydrogen can substantially spur industrial decarbonisation and economic growth for India in the coming decades.
About Green Hydrogen
- The technology for green hydrogen is based on the generation of hydrogen through electrolysis.
- It is a universal, light and highly reactive fuel.
- Under this method, electrical current is used to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water.
- In case the electricity is produced through renewable sources of energy, the hydrogen would be green hydrogen.
- Hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth. Also, the global demand for hydrogen as a fuel has become thrice of what it was in 1975. It is also the only source of energy that only emits water vapour and leaves no residue in the air.
- Hydrogen has been used to fuel cars, airships and spaceships since the beginning of the 19th century.
Green Hydrogen Advantages
- Hydrogen is a 100 % sustainable source: Green hydrogen does not emit polluting gases in its combustion or production processes.
- Green Hydrogen is a gas and thus would be easily stored. It can be subsequently used for other purposes just following its production.
- It can be easily transformed into electricity or synthetic gas which can then be used for domestic, commercial, industrial purposes.
- Green hydrogen can be mixed with the natural gas, up to a maximum of 20 %. It can also be transported through the same pipes and in the same infrastructure.
Green Hydrogen Disadvantages
- Renewable sources, which would be used to generate green hydrogen through electrolysis, are extremely expensive currently taking the cost of the whole production to sky heights.
- The production of green hydrogen requires more energy than other fuels.
- Green hydrogen is an extremely volatile and flammable element. It needs extensive safety measures to prevent leakage and explosions.
Green Hydrogen Importance
- Hydrogen is being used across the United States, Russia, China, France and Germany. Countries like Japan desire to become a hydrogen economy in future.
- Green hydrogen can in future be used for
- Electricity and drinking water generation, energy storage, transportation etc.
- Green hydrogen can be used to provide water to the crew members in space stations.
- Energy storage- Compressed hydrogen tanks can store the energy longer and are easier to handle than lithium-ion batteries as they are lighter.
- Transport and mobility- Hydrogen can be used in heavy transport, aviation and maritime transport.
Focus: GS III- Diaster Management
Why in News?
The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister has approved the categorization of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) as an ‘International Organization’ and signing of the Headquarters Agreement (HQA) with CDRI for granting it the exemptions, immunities and privileges as contemplated under the United Nations (Privileges & Immunities) Act, 1947.
Categorization of CDRI as an ‘International Organisation’ will help the CDRI in:
- Deputing experts to other countries, that are particularly vulnerable to disaster risk and / or require support for post disaster recovery and also bringing in experts from member countries to India, for similar purposes;
- Deploying funds globally and receive contributions from member countries, for CDRI activities;
- Making available technical expertise to assist countries to develop resilient infrastructure in accordance with their disaster and climate risks and resources;
- Imparting assistance to countries in adopting appropriate risk governance arrangements and strategies for resilient infrastructure;
- Rendering all possible support to member countries in upgrading their systems to ensure disaster and climate resilience of existing and future infrastructure, while aligning with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Paris Climate Agreement and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction;
- Leveraging international engagement to foster disaster resilient infrastructure at home; and,
- Providing Indian scientific and technical institution as well as infrastructure developers an opportunity to interact with global experts. This will help build our own capacities and mechanisms — both in public and private sectors — to support disaster resilient infrastructure development.
About Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure:
- The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) highlights the role of improved disaster resilience, especially of infrastructure, as a cornerstone for sustainable development.
- In this context, Indian PM proposed CDRI which will act as a convening body that will pool best practices and resources from around the world for reshaping construction, transportation, energy, telecommunication and water, so that building in these core infrastructure sectors factors in natural catastrophes.
- It was launched by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit in September 2019.
- According to Sendai framework, every $1 spent in disaster risk reduction leads to gain of $7. But developing countries face the dilemma of balancing economic investment for development vs disaster resilient infrastructure.
- CDRI could fill this gap of funds and technology and help developing countries to build disaster-resilient Infrastructure.
- The Government of India has been engaging with national governments, multilateral development banks, United Nations agencies, the private sector and academia to build the case for investing in resilient infrastructure.
- It is a collaboration of Government of India, UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, World Bank, the UN Development Programme and the Global Commission on Adaptation.
- The members of CDRI are Afghanistan, Australia, Bhutan, Fiji, Germany, Italy, Indonesia, India, Japan, Mauritius, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom and United States.
Purpose of CDRI
- The Coalition would address a common challenge of building resilience into infrastructure systems, particularly in the context of increasing disaster risk in the face of climate change.
- The Coalition would provide access to good practices to develop appropriate standards as well as regulatory mechanisms to manage infrastructure development in a manner that fosters resilience.
- The Coalition would also serve as a platform where knowledge is generated and exchanged on different aspects of disaster resilience of infrastructure.
- It will bring together a multitude of stakeholders i.e. governments, private sector, academic research institutions and international organisations.
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
- The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) was the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda.
- It provides Member States with concrete actions to protect development gains from the risk of disaster.
- The Sendai Framework works hand in hand with the other 2030 Agenda agreements, including The Paris Agreement on Climate Change, The Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the New Urban Agenda, and the Sustainable Development Goals.
- It was endorsed by the UN General Assembly following the 2015 Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR).