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Focus: GS-II International Relations

Why in news?

Prime Minister delivered a keynote address virtually at the 2020 High-Level Segment of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) session.

Details and Highlights

  • This was the first address by PM to the broader UN membership since India’s election as a non-permanent member of the Security Council.
  • The theme of the High-Level Segment of the ECOSOC this year is “Multilateralism after COVID19: What kind of UN do we need at the 75th anniversary”.
  • PM recalled India’s long association with the ECOSOC and the UN’s developmental work, including for the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • He also recalled the support provided by the Indian government and Indian pharma companies for ensuring medicine supplies to different countries, and for coordinating a joint response strategy among SAARC countries.

United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

  • The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organization.
  • The Council serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system.
  • High-level political forum (HLPF) is meeting under the auspices of ECOSOC every year in July.
  • The national reviews of progress in implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Voluntary national reviews) are presented and serve as a basis for the reviews by HLPF.
  • The Council consists of 54 Members States, which are elected yearly by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms.

United Nations Organisation (UNO)

Since it is the 75th Anniversary of the UNO, it is important for aspirants to learn about the Organisation. It is also the 75th Anniversary of World War II, hence, even that becomes important.

  • The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.
  • It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world.
  • The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City.
  • The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations.

Main Organs of United Nations

  1. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA),
  2. United Nations Security Council (UNSC),
  3. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC),
  4. United Nations Trusteeship Council,
  5. The International Court of Justice (ICJ),
  6. UN Secretariat.

All the 6 were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.

November 2023