Focus: Mains- GS 3- Agriculture

Why in news?

  • One of the first evidences of the medium to long-term impact of large scale, permanent environmental deterioration on rural populations in developing countries – the paper, ‘Way Down in the Hole: Adaptation to Long-Term Water Loss in Rural India’, was published in the American Economic Review
  • The analysis is based on villages in Karnataka where groundwater is a vital source of irrigation but has been depleted by a combination of a prolonged, multi-year drought, and intensive extraction.
  • 102 villages selected from 31 sub districts in eastern part of Karnataka were the base of the study


  • The issue is complex one as the groundwater resources in the area are limited
  • Water conservation needs to incentivized
  • Adoption of highly water efficient irrigation technology is the need of the hour
  • Recharge of groundwater
  • Creation and rehabilitation of existing surface water sources

Off farm employment strategies suggested

  • Developing industrial location around the farms
  • Skilled jobs in manufacturing and services sector
  • Vocational training and skill development course to be offered in such areas
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