The President of India presented awards as part of Azadi@75 Swachh Survekshan 2022.
GS II: Polity and Governance
Dimensions of the Article:
- About Swachh Survekshan
- Highlights of Swachh Survekshan 2022
- Swachh Bharat Mission
About Swachh Survekshan:
Nodal: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
- It is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns across India.
- It was launched as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which aimed to make India clean and free of open defecation.
- The first survey was undertaken in 2016 and covered 73 cities.
- By 2020 the survey had grown to cover 4242 cities and was said to be the largest cleanliness survey in the world.
- In 2021 Survekshan, participated by 4,320 cities, also saw an unprecedented number of citizens’ feedback – over 5 crores, compared to 1.87 cores last year.
Highlights of Swachh Survekshan 2022:
- Indore has been adjudged the cleanest city of India for the sixth year in a row, while Madhya Pradesh is the cleanest State in the country.
- Surat is the second cleanest city and Navi Mumbai ranks a close third in the category of cities with a population more than a lakh.
Population category of less than one lakh:
- Panchgani and Karad from Maharashtra bagged the first and third positions respectively, while Patan from Chhattisgarh bagged the second position.
Safai Mitra Suraksha category:
- Tirupati received the best city award in Safai Mitra Suraksha category,
Best Ganga town:
- Haridwar in Uttarakhand received the award for the best Ganga town in more than one lakh population cities.
Fast mover city award:
- Shivamogga in Karnataka received the fast mover city award.
More than 100 Urban Local Bodies:
- The State awards saw Madhya Pradesh emerge as the Cleanest State in the category of “more than 100 Urban Local Bodies”, relegating Chhattisgarh, the cleanest State of the previous three years, to second place.
- Maharashtra emerged as third cleanest State.
Less than 100 urban local bodies category
- Tripura got the cleanest state award in the “less than 100 urban local bodies category”, dislodging Jharkhand, which had won in the last two consecutive years.
- Jharkhand and Uttarakhand received the second and third spots respectively.
Swachh Bharat Mission
- Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission is a country-wide sanitation campaign launched on the day of Gandhi Jayanti, 2014.
- The phase -2 of SBM was announced by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in February, 2020 i.e. just preceding the first COVID wave in India.
- The phase -1 concluded in October 2019 with grand declaration of the Nation as Open Defecation Free.
- The Phase -2 emphasizes upon the sustainability of achievements under phase -1 and to provide adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & plastic waste management in rural India.
- Secretary, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS),
- Ministry of Jal shakti with two Sub-Missions – the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
The Main objectives of SBM are:
- Elimination of open defecation,
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging,
- Implementing Modern and scientific municipal solid waste management and
- Bringing behavioural change regarding healthy sanitation practices.
Swachh Bharat Mission for Urban Areas
- The program includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.
- The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town.
- Under the program, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc.
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- The Mission will focus on ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional population migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next 5 years. This will be done through the construction of over 3.5 lakhs individual, community and public toilets.
- Complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population – a new component introduced under SBM-Urban 2.0 will ensure that systems and processes are set up in every city so that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported and treated and no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.
Sustainable Solid Waste Management:
- 100 percent source segregation of waste along with functional Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) in every city, with a focus on phasing out single use plastic
- Setting up of construction & demolition (C&D) waste processing facilities and deployment of mechanical sweepers in National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) cities and in cities with more than 5 lakh population
- Remediation of all legacy dumpsites, so that 14,000 acres of locked up land lying under 15 crore tonnes of legacy waste are freed up.
The above will be achieved through robust capacity building of ULBs and all relevant stakeholders, and intensified focus on citizen engagement through communication and advocacy, for further scaling up the Jan Andolan.
There will be special focus on well-being on sanitation and informal waste workers through provision of personal protective equipment and safety kits, linkages with government welfare schemes along with their capacity building.
Expected Outcomes under Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- All statutory towns to become at least ODF+
- All cities with <1 lakh population to be made ODF++
- Putting in place systems and processes so that all wastewater is safely treated and optimally reused and no untreated wastewater pollutes water bodies
Solid Waste Management:
- All cities to achieve at least 3-star Garbage Free certification
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
- The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
- The mission aims to make India an open defecation free country.
- It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.
- Incentive, as provided under the Mission for the construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL), shall be available for all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line (APL) households restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless laborers with homestead, physically handicapped and women-headed households.
- Central Share (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
- The State share will be (25%).
-Source: The Hindu