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Unified Approach – Virus Outbreak in Kerala


The Nipah virus is causing devastation once more in Kozhikode, marking the fourth occurrence of this disease in Kerala in the past five years. Resulting from a zoonotic spillover, which involves the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, the Nipah virus finds its closest reservoir in fruit bats.

Status of the outbreak in Kerala:

  • In the recent events, two individuals have succumbed to Nipah in Kozhikode this week, and three more people, including two relatives of one of the victims, have tested positive and are currently receiving medical care.
  • These developments bring back unsettling memories from the frightening outbreak of 2018 when 21 out of 23 infected individuals lost their lives.
  • The situation, in terms of available treatment options, remains largely unchanged: there is no known cure, and the primary approach to managing Nipah infection, even in a hospital setting, is supportive care.
  • Kerala’s Health Minister, Veena George, has reported that hundreds of individuals who had contact with the deceased have been placed under medical observation. Among them, a nine-year-old child is receiving ventilator support.
  • To address the situation, a control room has been established in Kozhikode to monitor developments, and all hospitals in the district are being instructed to adhere to infection control protocols.
  • Sixteen teams have been assembled to implement appropriate containment measures, and a central team has been dispatched to Kerala to support the state government.
  • Neighboring states have taken precautionary measures to prevent the spread of infection across porous borders.
  • The state’s Chief Minister has reassured the public through a video message that the state is treating the issue with utmost seriousness.

Dealing with zoonotic outbreaks:

  • While previous outbreaks (in 2018, 2019, and 2021) have equipped medical teams with a set of established protocols spanning various domains such as management, isolation, containment, and treatment, it’s crucial to emphasize that maintaining constant vigilance is the sole defense against such outbreaks.
  • However, it appears that the most significant lesson, often overlooked, stems from global outbreaks. Research has consistently indicated that human activities have a clear role in the transmission of diseases from animals to humans, as seen in the case of Nipah.
  • The rapid expansion of agricultural practices into the original habitats of fruit bats has repeatedly emerged as a contributing factor in post-outbreak analyses.


As governments take strategic measures to combat outbreaks and reduce the toll of infectious diseases, it becomes increasingly evident that a comprehensive “One Health” approach must be embraced moving forward. The COVID-19 pandemic has deepened our understanding and appreciation of the One Health concept—an integrated and unifying approach that seeks to harmonize and optimize the well-being of humans, animals, and the environment. This approach is based on the recognition that these elements exist in symbiosis, and the health of one significantly affects the health of the others.

February 2024