Focus: GS-III Science and Technology, Prelims
Why in news?
- There are now more new cases of COVID-19 reported each day outside China than inside the hardest-hit country, the World Health Organization said on 26th February 2020.
- Governments worldwide are scrambling to prevent the spread of the new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) after a surge of infections in Italy, Iran and South Korea.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations that is concerned with world public health.
- It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
- The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
- Its predecessor, the Health Organisation, was an agency of the League of Nations.
- The WHO constitution was signed by 61 countries (all 51 member countries and 10 others) on 22 July 1946
- The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day.
What is Endemic, Epidemic and Pandemic?
Endemic: a disease that exists permanently in a particular region or population. Malaria is a constant worry in parts of Africa.
Epidemic: An outbreak of disease that attacks many peoples at about the same time and may spread through one or several communities.
Pandemic: When an epidemic spreads throughout the world.
Sporadic: Refers to a disease that occurs infrequently and irregularly.