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What is Plant Treaty?

Context:

The ninth session of the governing body of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) has recently begun in New Delhi.

Relevance:

GS II: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and agreements involving India


Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is the Plant Treaty?
  2. Aims
  3. Key provisions

What is the Plant Treaty?

  • The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations adopted the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) on November 3, 2001.
  • It was drafted in Madrid in 2001 and went into effect on June 29, 2004.
  • As the longtime guardians of the world’s food crops, indigenous people and small-holder farmers have made great contributions, and this document is the first legally binding international agreement to do so.
  • It also urges governments to safeguard and support people’s rights to preserve and utilise the seeds they have nurtured for millennia.
  • After almost three years, the parties to this treaty have gathered to talk about the governance of agricultural biodiversity and global food security.
Theme 2022:

The theme of the meeting is ‘Celebrating the Guardians of Crop Diversity: Towards an Inclusive Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework’.

Aims:
  • Guaranteeing food security through the conservation
  • Exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA)
  • Fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use, as well as
  • Recognition of farmers’ rights.

Key provisions:

  • The treaty established a Multilateral System (MLS) of access and benefit sharing among the ratifying nations for a list of 64 of the most significant food and forage crops necessary for interdependence and food security.
  • The treaty’s Annex 1 lists the genera and species.
  • The treaty facilitates the continued open exchange of food crops and their genetic materials.
  • Major food crops and forages are included in the list of plant genetic material covered by the Multilateral System of the Treaty.
  • Legume forages and grass forages are other divisions of the forages.
  • They were chosen based on standards for food security and interdependence across nations.

-Source: Down to Earth


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