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Yojana Summary January 2022

Chapter 1.   India as a Space Power

Starting From Scratch

INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research): The Indian Space Programme began in 1962 with the formation of INCOSPAR. It was the consequence of Dr Vikram Sarabhai, the creator of the Indian Space Programme, having a vision. He was influential in the establishment of dedicated research centres at a number of sites across India:

Yojana Summary January 2022
Yojana Summary January 2022 |

The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (formerly the Space Science and Technology Centre) was the centre for sounding rockets, solid propellants, and other space-related activities. Trivandrum is the location.

Ahmedabad is home to the Space Applications Centre (formerly known as the Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station). The focus here is on payload development and accompanying electronics.

First Sounding Rocket: In 1963, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station fired the first sounding rocket (TERLS). During launch, sounding rockets are used to conduct scientific experiments or measure readings in orbit. They’re also utilised to put new components through their paces in preparation for future projects.

INCOSPAR was supplanted by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969. It was followed in 1972 by the formation of the Space Commission and the Department of Space (DoS). ISRO was then absorbed into DoS.

The History of Space Travel

The SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle-3) was India’s first attempt at a space launch vehicle in the early 1970s. Having the launch of SLV-3 on July 18, 1980, India joined an exclusive club of only six countries with rocket launch capabilities. SLV-3 was a four-stage, all-solid launch vehicle capable of placing satellites in Low Earth Orbit.

Russia (previously Soviet Union, Sputnik), the United States (Juno), the European Space Agency (Ariane), Japan (Lambda), China (Long March), and India were the first six countries to launch space missions (SLV-3). Despite the fact that France (Diamant) and the United Kingdom (Black Arrow) are now members of the European Union, they were not members of the European Space Agency when they first launched their space projects.

India began work on the Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) project in the early 1980s. While SLV-3 had a weight constraint of 40 kilogrammes for satellites, ASLV was able to place bigger spacecraft into orbit. It has the capacity to transport satellites weighing up to 150 kilogrammes. It was also utilised to show off cutting-edge technology such as strap-on boosters.

High on the success of SLV-3 and ASLV, India began the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) project in the mid-1980s, which proved to be ISRO’s “workhorse,” with over 50 successful missions. It cemented India’s reputation as a low-cost, low-cost satellite launch service provider in the space business. It was the world’s first liquid-fueled rocket.

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) is ISRO’s most recent rocket. It is equipped with a cryogenic engine that was developed in-house and is capable of transporting heavier satellites into orbit. With four liquid strap-ons, it’s a three-stage rocket.

Satellites’ Evolution

First Experimental Satellites: Aryabhatta, India’s first satellite, was launched on April 19, 1975. It was launched from a Soviet Union facility. Following up on Aryabhatta’s success, India launched two earth observation satellites, Bhaskara-I and Bhaskara-II. They were useful in gathering expertise for remote sensing satellite launches.

Communication Satellites: India entered the satellite-based communication sector with the launch of APPLE, the country’s first experimental communication satellite (or Ariane Passenger PayLoad Experiment). Ariane, a European rocket, launched Apple into geosynchronous orbit.

The Aryabhatta, Bhaskara, and APPLE series of satellites, as well as APPLE, were launched free of charge by the various countries, thanks to the founding fathers of India’s Space Programme.

Television Signal Relay: In the Indian Space Sector, two projects, Satellite Instructional Television Experiment – SITE (1975-76) and Satellite Telecommunication Experimental Project – STEP (1977-79), were crucial in refining Television Signal Relay technology.

High-throughput satellites (HTS): To improve broadband access in rural regions, India has deployed HTS satellites such as GSAT-11, GSAT-19, and GSAT-29. This has not only improved connectivity to formerly unreachable places such as North-East India, but it has also given the Digital India Mission a boost (see inset).

INSAT-1B, India’s first multi-purpose operational satellite, was launched in the mid-1980s as part of the INSAT series. It was used in telecommunications, television transmission, and weather forecasting, among other fields. In response, India launched the INSAT-2 series of multipurpose satellites.

Remote Sensing Satellites: With the launch of IRS-1A in 1988, India proved its proficiency in the field of remote sensing. Remote sensing satellites are used to capture high-resolution photographs of a specific region and have a wide range of applications in fields such as agriculture, mineral exploration, forest mapping, groundwater survey, and so on.

Navigation using Indian Constellation (NavIC): In the form of NavIC, India has developed its own version of the Global Positioning System (GPS). It can pinpoint the precise location of an object for navigational purposes. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project has also approved the project for integration into mobile phones (3GPP).

Gagan (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation) expands NavIC to provide satellite-based navigation services for civil aviation and improved air traffic management across Indian airspace.

Future Plans: India plans to launch humans into space by 2024 as part of the Gaganyaan mission. ISRO has successfully tested the Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) in order to safely return the astronauts to Earth. Apart from that, ISRO has a number of missions in the works, including Chandrayaan-2, Aditya L1 Mission, and Mission to Venus.

Partnerships with the Private Sector: The space technology industry is approaching a period of intense rivalry, as evidenced by the advent of large corporations such as SpaceX, particularly in the areas of space tourism and satellite launch. India must also strengthen its capacities by integrating closely with non-government private entities in order to thrive in such fierce competition (NGPEs).

Commercialization of non-core services: The Indian government has decided to outsource its launch and telecommunication services so that ISRO can concentrate its efforts on speedier technology advancement. It has established New Space India Ltd (NSIL) to administer the country’s space activities as part of this.

Capacity Building: In the Space Technology Sector, it is also critical to enhance higher education options in order to take advantage of India’s demographic dividend over the next few decades. In 2007, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) was established in Thiruvananthapuram.


India has made significant progress in the field of space technology while retaining a great record of international cooperation. It’s worth noting that ISRO has accomplished this remarkable feat while keeping its missions cost-effective.

Going forward, it is believed that, as has been the case in the past, the development of India’s space sector will be directed on resolving societal issues afflicting the country’s socioeconomic scene. This will assist the Space Sector in gaining multilateral support from around the country.

UPSC Previous Year Questions

  • What is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space programme? (GS 3 – 2019)
  • India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically. (GS 3 – 2017)
  • Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development? (GS 3 – 2017)


Chapter 2.   Indian Armed Forces

Phase I: From the Declaration of Independence to the Year 1962 (Lessons Learnt)

Changing the Mindset: When India gained independence, British military officials were removed from the leading positions in the Indian army. As a result, officers from India, who were relatively young and inexperienced, were exposed. In addition, as an army fighting in World Wars, the Indian army saw a shift in its major goals as a result of the new threat on the frontiers.

The Kashmir War (1947–48) was a conflict between India and Pakistan. Pakistan’s incomprehensible behaviour of sending raiders across the border with the purpose of seizing the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir exacerbated the agony of division.

The Indian army handled it expertly, and the leadership played its cards well by having the Raja of Jammu and Kashmir sign the instrument of accession.

India However, with the Chinese onslaught on India’s northern borders in 1962, India experienced a rupture of confidence. This came after a lengthy diplomatic exchange that gradually devolved from a friendly tone to a tense conclusion.

PM Nehru’s personal energy engaged in China ties caused him to underestimate the threat from the north, which eventually became too overpowering for him, as evidenced by his rapidly worsening health.

Budgetary Cuts: The failure of the 1962 war was largely due to Indian complacency and a belief on generating goodwill at the expense of tactical warfare fundamentals. Because of the budget constraints imposed on the Indian army during the last decade, it was unprepared to fight the war.

Apart from budget constraints, the Indian army has suffered a loss of morale as a result of regular interference with the chain of command at the highest levels. Simultaneously, the leadership neglected to emphasise the threat posed by China. On the contrary, the current Defence Minister minimised the threat, focusing instead on the ongoing diplomatic engagement between the two heads of state.

1962 to 1988 (Phase II) (Regaining the Confidence)

Shift in Strategy: Following the 1962 conflict, the Indian military underwent a massive course correction, with important institutional and doctrinal changes made to reinforce the forces.

To begin with, the army was expanded from 5.5 lakh to over 8.25 lakh personnel. At the same time, funding were boosted to upgrade the military and assist them in countering the danger of Chinese sophisticated weaponry.

Integration of Forces: The lessons learned in the 1962 war were used to future conflicts, as the Indian Air Force was pressed into action early in the battle for supremacy to obtain tactical and strategic benefits.

Pakistan’s Failed Attempt in 1965: Pakistan embarked on a misadventure across the deserts of Rajasthan in the misguided notion that the Indian Army was vulnerable as a result of its defeat in the 1962 war and the leadership vacuum created by the death of Prime Minister Nehru.

The Indian military countered it to the utmost extent possible, with the Indian Air Force acting as a force multiplier this time.

The Decisive Victory of 1971: Pakistan’s genocide in its eastern provinces sparked a regional rebellion, with nearly 10 million refugees fleeing to India for safety. This resulted in a conflict between Pakistan and India, with the Mukti Bahini of Bangladeshi people siding with India. Apart from that, India’s remarkable administration of different areas was the highlight of the war:

The Indian armed forces managed the Western Sector in an offensive defence posture, with no territory gains in mind and the focus remaining on halting Pakistani military advances.

Northern Sector: In preparation of a two-front conflict, India kept a constant monitoring across the northern border, preparing for a Chinese incursion into Indian territory.

Eastern Sector: Indian military forces marched quickly into Bangladesh’s mainland, using lightning warfare to eliminate the danger posed by Pakistani army positions in the area, capturing around 90,000 POWs (PoWs).

Other Concerns: As the successor to British India, India inherited responsibilities for acting as the Indian Ocean Region’s Net Security Provider. This resulted in Indian involvement in a variety of areas, including the Indian Peacekeeping Mission in Sri Lanka (also known as the Indian Peacekeeping Force or IPKF), as well as Indian engagement in the Maldives under Operation Cactus to stop a mercenary coup attempt.

Global Issues: India faces numerous hurdles as a result of evolving global alignments and the need to constantly rebalance relations between various entities. Apart from the US retreat from Vietnam and the Iran-Iraq war in 1980, this includes the Sino-US rapprochement of 1972 and the energy crisis.

1988 to 2014 (Phase III) (Changing Strategies)

Chinese Challenge: To confront Chinese challenge in the northern mountainous regions, Indian armed forces went on an era of upgradation, as well as a wave of Chinese equipment upgradation sourced from the US (for e.g., Sikorsky helicopters for mountainous warfare). This was seen in India’s handling of the PLA Army’s Sumdorong Chu incursion.

Internal Challenges: Insurgencies in India’s interior have grown in recent years. Terrorist organisations such as the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) in the North East, as well as separatist forces in Punjab known as Pro-Khalistan fighters, were involved.

Insurgencies in Kashmir: After failing to penetrate Indian defences on the battlefield, Pakistan resorted to micro-warfare by encouraging insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. The Pakistani generals referred to this as the “bleeding India with a thousand cuts” approach. On both sides of the valley, the insurgency continues to claim lives.

People-Centric Approach: The Indian Army has begun on a quest to capture the hearts and minds of the Valley’s residents by taking a people-centric approach. This has resulted in an increase in the number of Indian Army casualties, but it has also instilled faith in the minds of the inhabitants of the valley, albeit it would take some time for the situation to improve.

In 1990, the Kargil War erupted. Pakistan treacherously occupied the peaks in the Kargil and other bordering sectors of Kashmir Valley, exasperated by its inability to inflict damage on Indian integrity in Kashmir, Punjab, or other locations. Despite India’s resolve to never crossing the LoC at any time, the Indian Army and Air Force collaborated in a superb counter-action to re-occupy the strategically positioned peaks.

Changes in Structure: The Kargil war and the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks prompted a reorganisation of India’s defence architecture in order to prevent such disasters from occurring again.

It resulted in the appointment of a full-time National Security Adviser, the foundation of the National Technical Research Organization, and the formation of Theater Commands to better integrate the three armed forces.

In addition, the Indian Navy and Coast Guard have been given increased resources and authority to work with state police forces to improve the Maritime Security Architecture.

From 2014 onwards, Phase IV will be implemented (Era of Modernization)

Proactive Approach: In recent years, the Indian Armed Forces have seen a significant transformation in tactical warfare. During the Uri attacks, a surgical strike was carried out within Pakistani territory.

In addition, the Indian Air Force carried out Balakot Air Strikes in retaliation for the Pulwama terrorist strikes, destroying terrorist launch pads in Pakistani border areas, as well as air-to-air combat between the two Air Forces. At the initial instigation from India, India called out Pakistan’s claims of employing nuclear weapons.

Increased Defense Budget: In recent years, the budgets of the Tri-services, particularly the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard, have been increased in order to make them capable of sniffing out any prospect of a Mumbai-style terror assault on Indian soil.

At the same time, they’ve been given greater responsibilities, like as combating sea piracy and illegal arms smuggling in the Indian Ocean region.

The rising Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean region, particularly at ports like Hambantota and Gwadar, has given Indian security analysts many restless nights. This has spurred the Indian Navy to embark on a war-like growth plan, which includes the introduction of new aircraft carriers and nuclear-powered submarines.

Standing up to China’s Border Violations: While China has always been an expansionist regime, recent years have seen a rash of Chinese incursions into its neighbours’ territories, whether it’s claiming territories along the 9-dash line (see inset) in the Pacific Ocean or incursions into Indian territory. In the face of Chinese efforts in Eastern Ladakh and the Chumbi Valley Areas, India has remained steadfast and firm.


India’s military doctrine has evolved in reaction to shifting alignments in its border areas as well as in the global arena. However, it is crucial to recognise that it is critical to maintain a state of awareness within its Armed Forces in order to counter any danger from surrounding countries.

This is especially true given that we live in a challenging neighbourhood and have the obligation of serving as a “Net Security Provider” to the Indian Ocean Region’s small republics.

UPSC Previous Year Questions

  • The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions. (GS3 – 2016)
  • Human rights activists constantly highlight the view that the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is a draconian act leading to cases of human rights abuses by the security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by the activists? Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by the Apex Court. (GS3 – 2015)
  • Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a “Digital Armed Force” to prevent crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation. (GS3 – 2015)

Chapter 3.   Global Agricultural Powerhouse

Agriculture has a lot of problems.

Recurrent Famines: The situation regarding the supply of food grains in the country was worrying following independence. Only roughly 50 million tonnes of cereal grain were produced. This was insufficient to feed the 35-million-strong population. As a result, the bulk of the people lacked appropriate access to dietary grains.

Loss of Agricultural Area to Pakistan: The issue was exacerbated by the loss of a significant portion of agricultural producing land to Pakistan as a result of Partition. While the Indus River system nourished highly fertile areas in West Pakistan, the Ganga and Brahmaputra river systems irrigated highly fertile areas in Eastern Pakistan, which produced food grains as well as commercial crops like jute.

Irrigation by Rain: With the exception of a few areas, continental India was not as well-served by permanent rivers as Pakistan. In fact, depending on the flow of water in the rivers, many communities faced the brunt of both the lack of irrigation and regular floods. When the Monsoon turned out to be moist, the majority of the area was dependent on the South-West Monsoon bringing winds and was thrown into hunger.

Food grain imports: Due to a lack of food grains, India has been compelled to purchase food grains from other nations, such as the United States’ PL 480 plan. Such import, however, was not immune to the diplomatic manipulations of East-west competition espoused under the banners of Communist and Capitalist Nations. During the 1965 India-Pakistan war, the United States cut off the supply of food grains to India, demonstrating the dangers of such imports.

Scientific Temper: During the British Era, the growth of scientific facilities was excruciatingly sluggish. Even the development that occurred was primarily aimed at benefiting the British trading community by increasing raw material production, which was crucial to the British manufacturing economy. It had nothing to do with an increase in food grain output, which India urgently needed at the time.

Agriculture’s Milestones

Green Revolution: India’s first two decades of independence taught it the need of investing in raising agricultural yield and productivity. This was crucial due to the country’s rapidly growing population, agriculture’s reliance on the monsoons, and, as previously indicated, the country’s desire to pursue an autonomous foreign policy as a part of the Third World.

First Five-Year Plan: India began by investing in irrigation projects and land reforms, such as allocating land titles to the land’s actual tiller and providing financial assistance to agricultural cooperatives. It worked to some extent, as food grain output increased to 70 million tonnes in 1956-57, but it was still far insufficient to meet the demands of an ever-increasing population.

Second and Third Five-Year Plans: The Second Plan was more focused on industrial development, taking into account the necessity for economic growth as well as the leadership’s belief in the trickle-down theory. Similarly, India only committed to the green revolution after famine and the PL 480 fiasco (as noted above) towards the end of the Third Five-Year Plan.

The Green Revolution Begins: It was approximately 1965 when India, facing a humiliating embargo on grain exports from the United States, turned to importing food grains from other sources and then committing itself to Mexican wheat types under the supervision of Dr Norman Borlaug and Dr MS Swaminathan.

Bumper Harvest: Despite its potential, dwarf wheat requires an unbroken supply of high-quality seeds, insecticides, fertilisers, irrigation, and continual scientific monitoring. However, the population was pleased by the results, which included a huge wheat crop of 17 million tonnes in 1968, compared to 11 million tonnes in 1966. Thus began India’s transformation from a wheat importer to a food surplus country.

Using Rice to Replicate the Success: India shifted to the IR-8 rice variety, which was created by the International Rice Research Institute in Manila, Philippines, based on the success of wheat cultivation. Rice yields increased from 2 tonnes per hectare to 6-7 tonnes per hectare, similar to Wheat production. Rice had the added benefit of a shorter 105-day cycle, which reduced crop time and allowed for multiple cropping.

Agriculture Extension and Marketing Services: As agricultural yields improved, the government assisted farmers by focusing on post-harvest production, as well as research and extension. Farmers received better compensation as a result of this. However, agricultural revenues have fallen short of expectations, and the agricultural sector remains exposed to natural disasters.

Climate Adaptability: India is a diverse country. These differences extend to the regions’ geographical characteristics. While most of India’s land is fertile and well-irrigated thanks to a network of canals, some parts of Rajasthan and the Deccan Plateau are desert-like. Crop types that are more adapted to such climes and can adapt to low-water situations have been developed by agricultural specialists for such places.

Increased Production: The Green Revolution and other crop advancements have resulted in an overall increase in food grain production as well as other agricultural goods like as fisheries and milk. Food grain production, for example, is expected to reach 308.65 million tonnes in 2020-21. Aside from that, India has surpassed China as the world’s second-biggest aquaculture producer, largest milk producer, and third-largest seafood producer.

Increased Exports: India has created a food surplus that can be used to sell food grains to other countries. Aside from that, many crop types offer unique traits that are in high demand in international markets. For example, the ‘Pusa-1121’ Basmati Rice created in India has an elongation rice of about 2.5. Agricultural exports of Basmati Rice alone totaled Rs 33,000 crore in 2018-19, generating valuable foreign cash.

Overcoming Current Challenges: Despite making great achievements in improving agricultural commodity output, India still has low yields when compared to its worldwide rivals. At the same time, inefficient supply channels waste a considerable amount of horticulture products. As a result, increasing the intensity of scientific applications and providing finances for agricultural infrastructure development are urgently needed.

The Use of New Technologies: It is vital to ensure that India’s farmer population benefits from the latest agricultural technologies and inventions. Drones and robots, for example, can be used to conduct aerial surveys and manage agricultural areas from afar. Similarly, as technology advances, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning capabilities can be used to analyse agricultural illnesses and other applications.

Wastage of Human Resources: India’s agriculture suffers from hidden unemployment as a result of a lack of modern technology and instruments. This not only increases reliance on agriculture and shrinks landholdings, but it also reduces human resource availability in other areas of the economy, such as manufacturing and services. There is a pressing need to make greater use of India’s existing demographic dividend.

Capital Investment: There is a need to enhance agricultural finance so that better inputs and innovative machinery can be used. Agriculture has been recognised as a sector under the Priority Sector Lending Scheme (PSL – see inset) by the Indian government in order to achieve this goal. In addition, the government has continually increased the Agricultural Lending goal. The aim has constantly been exceeded, to the credit of financial institutions.


India’s agriculture has progressed from being a food importer to a food surplus country that exports food grains to developing countries. This is due to the dedication of the scientific community, particularly Dr. Norman Borlaug and Dr. MS Swaminathan, as well as visionary leadership.

Despite its successes in agriculture, India’s agriculture has been classified as a backward system due to low yield levels, food waste, and low levels of food processing. This needs to be addressed in the medium term through targeted technology adoption and proper finance provision in the sector.

This is not only advantageous, but also necessary, given the country’s vast population and supply disruptions as a result of increased disaster-related incidences.

UPSC Previous Year Questions

  • How was India benefited from the contributions of Sir M.Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively? (GS3 – 2019)
  • How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption. (GS3 – 2018)
  • Establish the relationship between land reform, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in Indian Economy. Discussion the difficulty in designing and implementation of the agriculture friendly land reforms in India. (GS3 – 2013)

Chapter 4.   Infrastructure: History & Challenges

India’s Infrastructure Development History

Because the nature of British authority was such that it prospered by making the governed country a colony, India experienced considerable deindustrialization during the British reign.

As a result, making India a supplier of raw materials and a consumer of finished goods benefited the British. India’s diminishing income as a percentage of global revenue, which fell from 22.6 percent in 1700 to 3.8 percent in 1952, reflected this trend.

Early Efforts: The leaders of free India attempted to rescue the situation by devising a variety of industrial growth programmes, including:

The Bombay Plan was devised by eight of the world’s most powerful industrialists. It aimed to safeguard the indigenous sector through a regulatory framework monitored by the Indian government.

Various Industrial Policy Resolutions (1958, 1956, etc.) contributed to the creation of a strong public sector and a thriving private sector in the country, with a vision of “rapid industrialization.”

Five-Year Plans: In 1950, the Indian government established the Planning Commission to oversee the country’s implementation of Five-Year Plans. While the First FYP (a modified version of the Harrod-Domar Model) was primarily concerned with agricultural development, the Second FYP was devoted to improving the country’s industrial infrastructure.

Focus on Infrastructure Development: India has been pushing for the substitution of basic and capital goods industries since the Second FYP. It also saw a focus on basic infrastructure development, such as the coal sector, steel plants, and power plants, as a source of raw materials for other businesses.

Similarly, the Nationalization of Banks dominated the Fourth FYP (1969-74) and the building of the Indian National Highway System dominated the Fifth FYP (1974-78).

Recent Happenings

A $5 trillion vision Economy: India’s goal is to attain $5 trillion in revenue by 2024, with a goal of $10 trillion by 2030. This will necessitate meticulous planning and the injection of funding into the appropriate areas. This is critical in order to provide opportunities for the world’s largest group of kids entering the workforce.

Urbanization: As more people travel to metropolitan regions in search of better opportunities, India is seeing a major wave of urbanisation. The urban population is expected to grow to 60 million by 2030, up from 37.7 million in 2011. This population shift would necessitate the building of around 700 to 900 million square metres of urban space per year. The government has taken a number of initiatives to address the problem, including:

PM Awas Yojana (Urban): It was started in 2015 to address the urban poor’s housing requirements and to provide alternative housing so that they are not compelled to live in slums.

Affordable Rental Housing Complexes: They were declared by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, in response to the issues experienced by migrant workers.

The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act was passed to regulate the real estate industry.

The conferral of Infrastructure status on the real estate sector will assist in:

  • gaining access to lower-cost financing
  • a more rapid inflow of private capital
  • Tax breaks for the industry

Other efforts include the passage of the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, increased tax breaks on home loan interest, and the reduction of stamp duty, among others.

Projects to Promote Connection: As part of the Bharatmala Pariyojana, the government has launched a number of highway projects to improve connectivity between India’s numerous cities. Simultaneously, a host of Metro Rail projects have been launched to improve connection within the city limits and expand access to the suburbs.


In the future decades, India’s urban-rural demography is expected to rapidly change. Given the changing demographics of the population, it is vital to guarantee that enough facilities exist to care for the vulnerable population that has been left behind in rural areas. Simultaneously, appropriate infrastructure must be built to support the migration of people into urban areas.

UPSC Previous Year Questions

  • Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership(PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard. (GS3 – 2017)
  • Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised? (GS3 – 2014)
  • Adaptation of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model. (GS3 – 2013)


Chapter 5: Role of Media


In democracies like India, where the media is seen as the society’s fourth pillar, the media plays an essential role. The media is a powerful channel of communication that aids in the spread of knowledge, the debunking of false beliefs, and the correcting of wrong or outdated information.

Indian Media’s Obstacles:

Corporate and political power have strangled large sectors of the media, both print and visual, resulting in entrenched interests and the elimination of freedom.

Sedition Charges: Section 124a of the Indian Penal Code, which makes sedition a life sentence, jeopardises the independence of journalists. As a result, journalists are hesitant to work without fear of retaliation.

Concerns about remunerated and fake news: Paid news, advertorials, and fake news all represent a threat to balanced and free reporting. All of this invites bias and makes objective reporting impossible.

Censorship is defined as the restriction of speech, public communication, or other information. Various efforts are made to control and contain the media by rigorous rules and legislation.


The media should be unbiased and devoid of propaganda. It should present a balanced picture to the public. The media informs and educates the public about national and international political events, as well as other human realities that occur in everyday life.

Practice Question for Mains:

  1. The media is critical to our democracy, and if we can’t rely on journalistic ethics, the country will be in peril. Comment. (150 Words)

Chapter 6: Preparing future leaders

A brief introduction:

Skill development is the most important aspect of our country’s progress. India has a high ‘demographic dividend,’ implying that it has a lot of potential to provide the market with skilled workers.

What is the definition of skill development?

Skill development is the process of identifying and filling holes in your skills.

Your abilities determine your ability to follow through on plans and achieve your goals.

There are three distinct ways to categorise skills: –

Functional talents that may be used in a variety of businesses are known as transferable skills.

Define personality traits with attitudinal skills.

Subjects, techniques, and information are all covered by knowledge-based skills.

India’s Skill development challenges include:

Lack of mobility: People working in the skill development industry still have a very traditional mindset. Enrolling students in vocational education and training has become a tough task.

Lack of Infrastructural: Given the strong demand for competent labour, the infrastructure facilities now available in educational institutions across the country are insufficient.

Lack of Training: There are just a few highly competent and experienced trainers available. The teachers must be motivated and skilled in order to take on more responsibilities.

There is a lack of scalability.

Any model that is to be successful requires widespread support from a wide range of stakeholders. Such projects are moving slowly as a result of a lack of corporate buy-in.

Misalignment of skills: There are several issues pertaining to the skills that businesses require and the capabilities that educational and training institutions give. Employers’ needs are not always met by the skill sets provided by educational and training institutions.

The initial step in skill development is to identify potential employment opportunities and segment them according to demand and the feasibility of training applicants.

Technology can be used by private players to automate, improve, and scale skill-based teaching and certification approaches.

The efficiency of such training programmes will be aided by stronger connections between the many stakeholders in the process, as well as the establishment of necessary deliverables and a clear chain of accountability.

Simultaneously, efforts should be made to make such training programmes more accessible.


As India aspires to be one of the world’s most successful economic growth stories in the twenty-first century, it is vital that it ensures that its fast rising workforce is capable of coping with impending shocks and finding suitable jobs. And, rather than waiting until tomorrow, now is the moment to address India’s untrained worker problem and fix its skilling initiatives.

Practice Questions:

  1. Despite the fact that India has placed a strong emphasis on skill development, the employability of skilled workers has remained a major concern. Discuss. (250 Words)
  2. Discuss the importance and necessity of skill development for women in India. What steps has the government made to address this? (250 Words)
  3. Explain the significance of skill development for India and the obstacles it faces. What steps has the government made to address this issue? (250 Words)



February 2024