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Yojana Summary June 2022


Chapter 1: Decoding Modern Tech Terms


Context: The worldwide digital world now places a greater emphasis on developing technology as a result of the corona pandemic and the resulting social estrangement.

 

Quantum Computing:

 

Meaning: The use of quantum theory in computing has increased the computational capability of systems, which is referred to as quantum computing. Traditional computers use binary digits, or 0 and 1, to execute computations. However, superpositions of 0 and 1 can be used to create states in quantum computing. Thus, qubits—which have four possible states: 1, 0, 01, and 10—are the foundation of quantum computing.

 

Increase in Power: Quantum computers may execute sophisticated tasks that are difficult for computers based on binary computers by utilising the power of superposition of states and quantum entanglement. Quantum supremacy is the situation in which a task is completed by a quantum computer that no supercomputer (based on 0,1) can perform.

 

The use of quantum computing:

 

Cryptography and cybersecurity: Compared to classical computers, quantum computers are substantially faster at doing difficult mathematical operations. This implies that the advent of quantum computing will render obsolete the current encryption techniques. Quantum encryption will be required in their place, which will be as sophisticated as quantum computers.

 

Quantum computers can be utilised to power the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) in the fourth industrial revolution (AI). It is assumed that neural networks powered by quantum computing will aid AI in making logical conclusions based on its capacity to handle enormous volumes of data and quickly digest it.

 

Quantum computers can evaluate data for numerous years and predict weather trends for a specific year based on the pertinent circumstances.

 

Space Technology: In a similar manner, quantum computers will be able to carry out a variety of calculations more quickly and give astronauts the aid they need to carry out challenging space manoeuvres.

 

Pharmaceutical: Quantum models can help us understand how diseases behave, how proteins unfold, how hereditary diseases arise, and other pharma applications. As a result, vaccine development will go more quickly and effectively.

 

Other Areas: Almost every field can benefit from quantum computing. Quantum computers, for instance, may forecast financial patterns, trends, and dangers, assisting decision-makers in making the optimal choices. Quantum computers can also be utilised in logistics and scheduling to streamline the supply chain, improving resource management effectiveness.

 

Intelligent systems and machine learning:

 

Meaning: Attempts to replicate human intelligence in a machine are referred to as artificial intelligence. An artificial intelligence is programmed into a machine through reinforcement learning. Machine learning is the process of teaching machines.

 

Applications:

 

Medical: Long before serious symptoms appear, AI can predict an illness. Robots powered by AI can also carry out complex surgeries. AI can also be used to handle data, including medical information. AI will be able to suggest the best treatment options by analysing this data. AI can be used to monitor patients’ vitals following surgery as part of post-operative care. In an emergency, it can notify specified parties. To comprehend protein unfolding, which is essential for drug discovery, AI is already being used.

 

Transportation: Self-driving cars and planes already make use of AI. AI can be used to identify accident-prone areas in traffic management.

 

Management: Businesses use AI robots to resolve complaints, AI programmes to anticipate share market trends, and automated trading. Financial data management employs AI.

 

Security: AI is useful for CCTV monitoring, forensic analysis, and facial recognition.

 

Education: By analysing student learning gaps and modelling courses based on these gaps and the individual students’ cognitive abilities, AI can deliver adaptive learning.

 

Agriculture: AI is used to monitor farms in real-time and to streamline the processing and sale of farm products. Agri-drones powered by AI can be used to monitor crops and soil.

 

Utilizing the Cloud

 

Meaning: As opposed to traditional computing, which keeps data on a local storage device, cloud computing keeps data in distant storage that can be accessed via the internet from anywhere in the world. For the delivery of services, cloud computing makes use of data storage, servers, databases, networking, and software.

 

Applications of it:

 

Email and social media: To access data anywhere, at any time, email clients and social media programmes employ cloud computing.

 

Data storage, backup, and retrieval: A backup copy of your data can be stored on a cloud server. Therefore, even if local hardware fails, data security can still be achieved.

 

Collaboration in a Team: Without the requirement for close proximity, multiple users can work on app creation and testing at the same time using cloud computing.

 

Software delivery on demand: Cloud computing allows for the on-demand rental of pricey software.

 

Audio and video streaming: Websites that leverage cloud computing for audio and video streaming include YouTube, Netflix, and Prime Video.

 

The Atal Community Innovation Centers (ACIC) may prove to be one of the key drivers of economic development in the nation’s rural and underdeveloped regions. It has the potential to tap into the enthusiasm of youth because it concentrates on underdeveloped areas and communities. If properly implemented, ACICs might herald inclusive progress for the nation.

 

The Space Industry

 

Quantum communication is based on the superposition of quantum states and is used in quantum computing. Due to the difficulty of copying these states, quantum satellite communication is impenetrable to outsiders. To protect its military communications, China just launched a quantum communication satellite.

 

Quantum Radar: Stealthy quantum radars that cannot be detected or interfered with by hostile systems. Useful for biomedical and security applications, quantum radar systems produce entangled photons that operate at such low power that they can blend in with background noise.

 

Clearing Space Junk: Scientists are developing self-destructive rockets called self-eating rockets to combat the problem of growing space debris. Similar to self-vanishing satellites, these objects will eventually destroy themselves, preventing space trash.

 

Smart materials that can repair themselves when damaged are known as self-healing materials. Any harm to satellites and space missions will therefore be repaired itself in orbit. It will be beneficial in improving the safety of space crew members who must perform spacewalks to repair spacecraft.

 

Robots with human-like appearances and behaviour are known as humanoid robotics. They can accompany people on space trips, provide them company, and do out challenging jobs in zero gravity.

 

Biotechnology

 

Meaning: Biotechnology is a discipline of biology that develops products and technologies to enhance human lives using cellular and bimolecular processes.

 

Biotechnology Applications:

 

Synthetic DNA: Using basic components like amino acids and sugars, biotechnology allows for the creation of new genes. Applications for synthetic genes include vaccine development, gene therapy, and DNA fingerprinting.

 

Tissue engineering: Using cells and engineering, tissue engineering creates usable tissue that can be utilised in place of biological tissue. It is employed in the creation of bioreactors, artificial organs, etc.

 

Gene Editing and Sequencing: The nucleotide sequence of DNA is determined using a DNA sequencing approach (deoxyribonucleic acid). The most fundamental level of understanding of a gene or genome is its nucleotide sequence. Then, using a gene editing approach, it can be spliced at a specific location for the appropriate alteration.

 

Quantum Microscopy: Quantum microscopy enables the measurement and photography of microscopic features of matter and quantum particles for additional investigation.

 

Technology in Agri-Food:

 

Meaning: The application of technologies to increase agricultural output and advance food processing is referred to as agrifood technology.

 

Agrifood Technology Benefits

 

Agriculture that is climate-resilient: Crop development that is climate-resilient is a component of agrifood technology. These seeds, which are being created by introducing adaptable genes, can withstand extremely high temperatures.

 

High yielding varieties: Biotechnology and genetic engineering are used to generate high yielding varieties of food crops and other crops. To ensure the security of our food supply, this is crucial.

 

Agrifood technology also covers the application of technology to nutrient-fortify food grains. In order to assure nutrient security for vulnerable populations, crops like golden rice have been developed.

 

Agri-robotics: In a similar vein, agrifood technology manages farms and conducts crop monitoring remotely using drones and survey tools.

 

Blockchain

 

Meaning: A blockchain is a digital record that is encrypted and kept in the form of blocks on a network of computers. Anywhere in the world has access to this info. Since it is kept on numerous computers around the world, it is decentralised. It is challenging for anyone to modify the data because to its decentralised design and encryption.

 

Applications:

 

Blockchain could function as a distributed ledger of currency for financial services like money distribution. Blockchain technology is already used in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Blockchain technology prevents data manipulation, therefore fraudulent money records cannot be created.

 

Public services: Data for public services can be recorded on the blockchain network. For instance, the Swacch Bharat Mission may use blockchain to keep track of toilet building data on a public ledger to encourage the accountability of public officials. This will safeguard against data manipulation and encourage openness.

 

Networks of supply chains: Blockchain can be used to manage supply chains. It records and tracks data on each and every step taken in the supply chain network. To stop criminality associated with illegal diamond mining, for instance, diamond trade companies use it to track the provenance of stones.

 

Metaverse:

 

Meaning: A digital cosmos that may be accessed through digital devices is what is meant by the term “metaverse.” Every experience imaginable in the virtual world is made available to users in the physical world. The metaverse allows for virtual existence.

 

A digital avatar of a person can reach the Metaverse through virtual reality technology. A person’s digital avatar in this environment can communicate with others, hold digital assets, engage in business partnerships, etc. The development of the metaverse is being carried out by organisations including Microsoft, Meta (Facebook), Decentraland, Nvidia, and Unity.

 

A Different Technology:

 

Smart Manufacturing (SM): Internet-connected machinery is used to monitor, regulate, and improve the production process in this technology-driven manufacturing method. By using automation and data analytics, smart manufacturing aims to automate production lines, enhance quality, and increase efficiency.

 

Internet of Things: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of interconnected physical objects that can be automated as needed and managed from a distance. By using sensors, these gadgets gather and exchange data with humans and other devices.

 

Use in Daily Life: Without the need for human interaction, IoT can make decisions based on their surroundings and their requirements. To turn on the lights when a user wakes up, for instance, sensors in the bed can analyse the person’s movement and communicate with the lighting. To prepare coffee, they can also communicate with coffee makers.

 

Use in Industry: Connected machines in smart manufacturing can streamline assembly lines, cut down on downtime, and alter the setup based on client demands.

 

Big data analytics is the process of using intelligent systems to gather, store, and process vast amounts of data. As it can help the machines train themselves, this data is useful for machine learning. AI can locate errors and provide enhancements and alterations to the manufacturing process through the study of big data.

 

Industry 4.0 blends blockchain, IoT, big data analytics, and AI to improve productivity in the industrial sector.

 

Practice Question:

 

Q. Talk about recent technological developments that have an impact on people’s lives. Analyze their significance for the socioeconomic advancement of society as well.

 

UPSC PYQs

 

  • Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma? (GS3 – 2018)
  • Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development? (GS3 – 2017)
  • What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation. (GS3 – 2015)

 


 

Chapter 2: AI in Education

 


 

The use of technology in a variety of disciplines, including education and learning, has increased quickly. The use of cutting-edge technology like artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in learning has become part of India’s healthy growth of startup culture.

 

Learning and Artificial Intelligence

 

Artificial Intelligence: Using neural network algorithms in computers or computer-enabled systems, artificial intelligence (AI) mimics human intelligence. AI processes information using machine learning and reinforcement learning to create results that are similar to human behaviour for problem-solving and making thoughtful judgments.

 

Machine Learning (ML): The utilisation of a lot of data to train a machine is referred to as machine learning (ML). For instance, AlphaGo Zero only used the game’s rules to teach itself how to play chess and GO. After only a few hours of practise, they were able to outplay the world’s top human players.

 

AI in Education: Technology has an impact on the education industry as well. AI is assisting in data administration, curriculum creation, and student evaluation in addition to tutoring by utilising adaptive learning. AI adjusts the course speed to the child’s needs and offers a comfortable learning environment according to the child’s cognitive capabilities.

 

AI’s advantages for education

 

Learning environment: Through the use of virtual reality and augmented reality, AI has the potential to improve students’ capacity for learning. An art student can envision paintings by Picasso or Leonardo da Vinci using persuasive reality. Similar to this, a science student can use virtual reality to experience Mars’ environment while seated on Earth.

 

Teaching and support staff for teachers: Students were compelled to study at home due to the pandemic. Even remote regions can now access high-quality education in their native language because to the dynamic, intelligent material and 24/7 accessibility. It was also a chance for edutech entrepreneurs to deliver lessons and address students’ questions and doubts on their platforms using AI-based teaching materials and tools. Additionally, unlike the restrictions placed on humans, AI-based technologies are accessible to students around-the-clock, reducing the amount of waiting time for the student.

 

Personalized Teachers: Another advantage of AI-based learning is that it is adaptable. Every student is unique, with a range of interests and levels of cognitive ability. However, it is challenging for a single teacher to comprehend each student’s cognitive capacity and adjust instruction accordingly. AI, on the other hand, is able to comprehend its user and adjust to her wants. AI also recognises learning gaps and creates curricula with those areas as its main focus.

 

Automated Grading: Academics depend heavily on grading. It promotes healthy rivalry among students and gives them motivation to study hard in order to perform better on subsequent exams. To grasp the gaps in pupils’ understanding, constant evaluation is also necessary. Subjective paper grading, however, is a time- and energy-consuming process. Once more, different teachers provide different grades for the same paper. Students also complain about teachers picking one student over another. However, AI can grade student papers while ensuring uniform evaluation standards with the aid of natural language processing.

 

Administration: The role of administration in education and educational institutions is crucial. Classes are scheduled, and professors and resources, such labs and other tools, are distributed among the many classes. Additionally, it entails overseeing student data for attendance, grading, and other tasks. But administrative work is frequently tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, rather than concentrating on teaching, teachers devote their energy to administrative tasks. Such jobs can be readily handled by AI, saving time and energy.

 

Content Creation: With the development of technology, education is moving toward being more interactive. Smart boards, cutting-edge audio-videos, digital models, and graphics are replacing the conventional book-based educational methodology. This increases students’ enthusiasm in learning while also assisting them in gaining conceptual clarity. The creation of intelligent content, such as digital books, animated films, digital models, etc., also makes use of AI. The learning environment for pupils is being revolutionised by them. Regular content updates and learning-based adaptations make education dynamic and well adapted to the needs of students.

 

Language processing: There are many languages in a diverse nation like India, including 22 official languages and countless dialects. Communication problems result because it is challenging for a person to comprehend the meaning of words in languages she is not fluent in, given their structure and context. AI can be useful in these circumstances. In the following ways, natural language processing can facilitate understanding of text written in languages other than one’s own:

 

AI-based apps can translate books, journals, periodicals, and research papers into languages that the user is familiar with. As a person knows a great deal more in her mother tongue, this is extremely helpful.

 

Grammar: Apps like Grammarly can be used to fix errors in reports and papers because they can even determine the context of a given remark. Such applications would develop over time and become incredibly helpful for content development.

 

Content in mother tongue: Under a new education policy, it is required to provide students with elementary education in their mother tongue. With the use of AI-based tools, such content can be easily created or existing content from one language into another.

 

Conclusion:

 

India’s population is very large. We can gain from AI-based schooling with its assistance. The new education policy of India places a strong emphasis on the role of technology. In reality, businesses and the Indian government are implementing AI-based education. In a secure and healthy atmosphere across the nation, AI is facilitating access to and affordability of education.

 

Practice Question:

 

Q. Examine the effects of growing technology use in education and learning. Do you believe that the epidemic has accelerated the development of online learning’s integration into the system of traditional education? Critically examine.

 

UPSC PYQs:

 

  • “Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable? (GS3 – 2016)
  • The quality of higher education in India requires major improvements to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of higher and technical education in the country? Discuss. (GS3 – 2015)
  • Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges. (GS3 – 2014)

 


 

Chapter 3: NFT Explained

 


 

Context: The creation of cryptocurrencies using blockchain technology has already altered how the global financial system functions. Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), a new system based on blockchain, may prove to be a game-changing innovation in the field of asset management.

 

Non Fungible Tokens

 

Non Fungible Token (NFT): NFT is a distributed ledger that uses blockchain technology to record data on the owners’ digital assets. Two words, non-fungible and token, are used to describe the Non Fungible Token (NFT) in its literal sense.

 

Token: Any asset that is being pointed to by a token, most often one that is digital, is known as the token. The assets might be anything, including a work of art, piece of music, an image, a game, a film, or occasionally even a real object. The distributed ledger, based on blockchain technology, generates the tokens through intricate mathematical calculations. These tokens are each given a special serial number and included in the NFT network.

 

Non-Fungible: It alludes to the quality of not being replaceable. For instance, a Rs. 500 note can be swapped out for another one of a like denomination without losing any of its value. As a result, it is interchangeable and fungible. The NFTs, on the other hand, each have a distinct serial number and cannot be changed for another one or copied. The token is now non-fungible as a result.

 

Blockchain Technology: To store data, NFTs employ blockchain technology. This demonstrates how using NFTs can benefit from blockchain technology. For instance, NFTs are made secure, authenticated, and storage for permanent memory is possible thanks to blockchain technology. The blockchain technology is decentralised once more. As a result, it gives consumers power instead of a centralised authority, enhancing user privacy and lowering transaction costs.

 

NFT applications:

 

Arts: NFTs can be used by artists to market their artwork. It might boost their income while also protecting them from revenue losses brought on by piracy. Similar to this, art aficionados will have access to products made by artists and will be able to communicate with them directly to determine the true worth of the products.

 

Collectibles: Collectibles are objects with a strong emotional connection. a bat, for instance, that a batsman used to score the winning runs in a major competition. Some businesses that collect NFT include Cool Cats, CryptoPunks, and Bored Ape Yacht Club. In fact, in the future, medals and trophies may be awarded and stored using NFT technology. IIT Kanpur, for instance, granted its students degrees in the form of NFTs.

 

Commercial applications: NFTs can be utilised for online product sales. For instance, NFT can be used to sell and distribute event tickets. You can copyright and register domain names. NFTs can also be used to buy carbon credits and prove ownership of them. This might develop a market for carbon credits online and contribute to a decrease in emissions from both enterprises and people.

 

Future Technologies: NFTs have a significant impact on the development and adoption of metaverse. A virtual world called the Metaverse allows for the creation and sale of digital assets. One can, for instance, own a digitally produced house in the Metaverse. Facebook’s platform just received the name Meta.

 

Advantages of NFT

 

Secure: NFTs are built using blockchain technology, as was already explained. This indicates that a lot of resources are used by systems all around the world to preserve the integrity of the distributed ledger. As a result, the technology’s encryption is difficult to crack, making NFTs safe and guarding the system from a wave of hackers.

 

Authenticity: Once more, because NFTs are built on blockchain technology, they cannot be copied. As a result, they are special, and the underlying asset determines their worth. Similar to DLTs, NFTs are built on distributed ledger technology and all relevant information is readily accessible online, increasing their transparency.

 

Elimination of middlemen: Artists have complained that middlemen like art galleries take advantage of them because they lack business understanding. Such middlemen underpay the artists by taking a large percentage from their sales. NFTs, on the other hand, do away with the middlemen, allowing the artist or asset owner to sell directly to the buyer without the need for an art gallery owner, music distributor, or other such intermediary.

 

NFTs are portable since they are available everywhere and can be shared instantly between users. NFTs are portable as a result. Additionally, NFT transactions use cryptocurrencies and are not susceptible to the high fees that payment intermediaries impose on cross-border transactions. As a result, they are less expensive and quicker than transactions in a formal, regulated system.

 

Assets are not indestructible; they have their own limitations. For instance, whereas digital assets can be accidentally deleted or lost owing to data corruption, physical items can be destroyed. NFTs, on the other hand, are not confronted with these difficulties because their metadata cannot be altered. They are almost unbreakable since they are saved on a decentralised blockchain that is distributed across many computers worldwide.

 

NFT Speculation Issues: The assertion that NFTs are a “bubble” is one of the most important problems associated with their use. It implies that, in contrast to a tangible object, NFTs might not be priced appropriately by the buyers. Buyers could pay a high price that is in line with the current trend but is not equal to the asset’s true value. Many innocent clients’ investments could be at jeopardy because they might not be able to resist the allure of making a fast buck.

 

Money laundering: NFTs have been identified by many authorities as potential tools for money laundering that may be utilised by illegal and/or illicit organisations to transfer money from one place to another. Similar to this, the NFT-based marketplaces may become subject to cyber-frauds and hackers due to the enormous volume of money entering them.

 

Lack of Central Authority: Unlike legal tender, NFTs are not subject to regulation by the government or any agency supported by the government. As a result, they have no means of filing a complaint and are therefore prone to fraud. Due to their anonymity and transnational nature, any disagreements that may arise between partners in the NFT ecosystem are not subject to judicial redress or claims by the respective parties.

 

Copyright Protection: It has been documented that other people have offered digital artwork created by one artist for sale on the NFT market. This increases the likelihood that a person will be able to properly attribute her work as well as assert her copyright rights over it. It appears tough to settle the situation because there is no opportunity for government participation.

 

Copying and fraud: According to media sources, there has been an increase in NFT-related fraud throughout the digital world as a result of the NFT market’s quick user base growth. For instance, users of the NFT market have fallen victim to click fraud in which they are persuaded to divulge their private financial information, which results in a substantial financial loss.

 

Environmental protection NFTs are built using the same blockchain technology as cryptocurrencies. This indicates that the NFT ledger is stored decentralised on several computers around the globe. These systems must do difficult mathematical operations in order to add, update, and validate the specifics of the numerous transactions taking place in the NFT marketplaces. As part of the energy generation process, this procedure uses a lot of energy, increasing emissions.

 

Cryptocurrency vs. NFT

 

Similarities: Block chain technology serves as the foundation for both NFTs and cryptocurrencies. Similar to how NFTs and bitcoin are traded and bought on online marketplaces like Opensea and WazirX due to their nearly same character (India). Both are thought to be secure and anonymous, and neither has a centralised authority.

 

Differences: Because cryptocurrencies are fungible tokens, the value of one bitcoin cannot be changed by exchanging it for another. On the block chain, each NFT is distinct and has a distinct serial number, nevertheless. Since NFTs cannot be replaced by other NFTs, they are non-fungible. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, have an inherent value that they themselves signify, but NFTs do not. Their worth is determined by the underlying asset to which they are referred.

 

NFTs have completely dominated the industry and present enormous prospects across a variety of application fields. NFT is now a technology for managing digital assets and has the potential to have a wide range of effects on our daily lives, from security to commerce. Exploring NFT technology’s full potential and applying it to further fields is urgently required to increase the system’s security, dependability, and credibility.

 

Practice Question:

 

Highlight the definition of the phrase “non-fungible” while describing the non-fungible token’s workings. Also, talk about the drawbacks of NFT technology.

 

UPSC PYQs

 

  • Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms. Comment. (GS2 – 2013)
  • Questions are asked on new technologies like: How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. (GS2 – 2013)

 


 

Chapter 4: Accessible Healthcare to All

 


 

Context: The onset of COVID has refocused attention on the country’s health infrastructure in order to handle the swelling population. PM Ayushman Bharat The Jan Arogya Yojana is a timely initiative that exploits the availability of private healthcare to create a healthier India by fusing the public healthcare system with a digital system.

 

India has national health insurance.

 

2017 National Health Policy The 2017 National Health Policy’s goals include providing secondary and tertiary care to everyone and ensuring universal healthcare. In order to guarantee appropriate funding for the healthcare sector, it also suggests raising the government’s yearly public health expenditure to 2.5% of GDP in a time-bound way.

 

Earlier Plans: The Indian or state governments have made several attempts to offer universal health insurance throughout the nation before launching Ayushman Bharat. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), a pan-Indian programme, and state programmes like Aarogyashri in Andhra Pradesh and Rajiv Gandhi Jeevandayee Arogya Yojana in Maharashtra are examples of earlier programmes.

 

Ayushman Bharat, or AB-JAY The government’s Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY) aims to assist 10 crore of the nation’s impoverished and vulnerable households. In the event that a family needs hospitalisation for secondary or tertiary care, it offers health insurance coverage for up to Rs 5 lakh per family each year.

 

The largest universal healthcare programme in the world: The National Health Protection Mission, or Ayushman Bharat, is an all-inclusive programme that has been dubbed the largest healthcare programme in the world. It incorporates its predecessor programmes, the Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme and the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) (SCHIS).

 

Qualities of the AB PM-JAY

 

Comprehensive: AB PMJAY currently offers 1670 treatment packages to 14 crore families and 70 crore patients. The programme pays for both pre- and post-hospitalization costs. All states and hospitals that are registered to use the programme can take advantage of its benefits.

 

Beneficiaries: AB PM-JAY beneficiaries are chosen in accordance with the 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census. There are no limitations based on gender, age, or family size.

 

Flexibility: According to schedule 7 of the Indian constitution, health is a state subject. States and Union territories are therefore given flexibility in terms of the method of implementation, the beneficiary database, and the selection of the network of hospitals to be empanelled in the programme.

 

Integration: A national-level implementation agency is the National Health Authority. The programme is supervised at the State level by the State health agencies. The scheme’s district-level execution is the responsibility of the District Implementation Units (DIU).

 

Platform: The National Health Authority designed the AB PMJAY platform (NHA). The platform controls hospital empanelment, beneficiary identification, and transaction administration. NHA has implemented strong anti-fraud protocols in the platform using technology to keep it secure. The multilateral development community has provided institutional assistance for the establishment of a National Anti-Fraud Unit (NAFU) at the same time.

 

Public-private partnership: Both public and private hospitals have been appointed in order to provide all individuals with coverage under AB PMJAY. It will lessen the number of patients in public hospitals, enabling them to deliver high-quality healthcare.

 

Regular Upgrades: The Scheme is frequently improved, and new treatment packages are occasionally added. For the purpose of classifying patients and diseases, NHA adopted the International Classification of Diseases (ICD11) system. Hospitals around the world utilise the ICD 11 as a costing tool. It guarantees consistency and uniformity in cost and treatment strategies across different hospitals.

 

Treatment that is effective: Diagnosis Related Grouping has been implemented by AB PM-JAY, the first insurance scheme in India and one of the pioneers worldwide (DRG). Instead of paying on the basis of a booked Health Benefits Package, the DRG system requires that the hospital be paid according to the diagnosis and prognosis of the admitted patient. The DRG system guarantees thorough and effective patient care while addressing hospitals’ worries about rising package costs because of complications and comorbidities.

 

Awareness: Ayushman aapke dwar has been established to provide Ayushman cards to recipients door to door. Its goal is to target states with lower coverage ratios than other states, such as Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh.

 

Challenges

 

High Out-of-Pocket Costs: One of the main causes of people in India falling below the poverty line is catastrophic expense brought on by unanticipated health emergencies. According to numerous studies, such events have thwarted government efforts to eliminate or at least reduce poverty in the nation.

 

Infrastructure for public healthcare is subpar: According to government statistics and media sources, India has a limited supply of hospital beds compared to the needs of its large population. As a result, public hospitals are overcrowded and have poor facilities.

 

Other institutions’ current state: To meet the needs of AB PMJAY, the subdistrict hospitals are understaffed and lack the necessary equipment. At the same time, public access to private healthcare facilities is either hindered by cost or a shortage of professionals with the necessary training.

 

Insufficient number of healthcare workers One of the lowest doctor-to-population ratios in the world is found in India. India has a doctor-to-population ratio of 1:834, based on 5.65 lakh registered Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha, and homoeopathic physicians and an availability of 80 percent registered allopathic physicians.

 

Total number of registered healthcare professionals: According to data from the National Medical Commission and State Medical Councils, there are 1.3 million registered allied and healthcare professionals, 2.89 lakh dentists, and nearly 13 lakh registered allopathic doctors in India.

 

Lack of accessibility in rural areas: Healthcare facilities in India are divided between rural and urban locations. According to a Lancet report, more than 8% of Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in India lack a physician. Similar to this, 22% of PHCs lacked a pharmacist, and 38% lacked a lab technician. In comparison to their male counterparts, 61 percent of positions for female health assistants are still open. This suggests that rural areas lack high-quality healthcare facilities.

 

Conclusion The largest health insurance programme in the world is PM-JAY. It is a comprehensive health care intervention with the goal of helping India meet its SDG 3 commitments. The 3As of healthcare—accessibility, affordability, and availability—are the main points of the plan. This programme is distinctive due to factors including center-state cooperation, utilisation of cutting-edge technology, and integration of the public and commercial healthcare systems across India. Unquestionably, the plan is a positive step toward achieving the goal of universal health care.

 

Practice Question:

 

Talk about the key components of the Ayushman Bharat PM Jan Arogya Yojana. What difficulties are there in putting it into practise?

 

UPSC PYQs

 

  • Implementation of information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Projects / Programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors, and suggest measures for their effective implementation. (GS3 – 2019)
  • Public health system has limitations in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that the private sector could help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives would you suggest? (GS3 – 2015)

 


 

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