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Current Affairs 13 October 2023


  1. Global Hunger Index 2023
  2. Cabinet approves royalty rates for lithium & two other strategic minerals
  3. Study on Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI) Impacts on Global Food Production
  4. Multimodal AI Systems
  5. Sutlej Yamuna Link Canal
  6. Goan Cashew
  7. Rasmussen’s encephalitis

Global Hunger Index 2023


India ranked 111th out of 125 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2023, a standing the government termed “erroneous and having malafide intent”.


GS-II: Social Justice and Governance (Issues related to Hunger and Poverty, Government Policies and Interventions)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Global Hunger Index (GHI)
  2. Highlights of the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2022

About Global Hunger Index (GHI)

  • The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a tool that measures and tracks hunger globally as well as by region and by country.
  • The Global Hunger Index (GHI) prepared by European NGOs of Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe.
  • The GHI combines 4 component indicators:
    • Undernourishment: the share of the population with insufficient caloric intake (data are from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization)
    • Child stunting: the share of children under age five who have low height for their age (data are from UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and the Demographic and Health Surveys Program)
    • Child wasting: the share of children under age five who have low weight for their height (data are from UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and the Demographic and Health Surveys Program)
    • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children under age five (data are from the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation).
  • Countries are divided into five categories of hunger on the basis of their score, which are ‘low’, ‘moderate’, ‘serious’, ‘alarming’ and ‘extremely alarming’.
  • The GHI is calculated annually, and its results appear in a report issued in October each year.
  • Besides presenting GHI scores, each year the GHI report includes an essay addressing one particular aspect of hunger.
  • The aim of the Global Hunger Index is to raise awareness and act against hunger to reduce hunger around the world.

Highlights of the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2023

  • India has been ranked 111th out of 125 countries in the Global Hunger Index-2023. It reported the highest child wasting rate at 18.7%.
  • In 2022, India was ranked 107th out of 121 countries.
  • India received a GHI score of 28.7 in 2023, indicating a serious level of hunger.
  • The global GHI score for 2023 is 18.3, considered moderate and slightly lower than the world’s 2015 score of 19.1.
  • Neighboring countries like Pakistan (102nd), Bangladesh (81st), Nepal (69th), and Sri Lanka (60th) outperformed India in the index.
  • South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara have the highest hunger levels, each with a GHI score of 27, indicating serious hunger.

Criticism of the Report by the Union Government:

  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD) has criticized the GHI, calling it a “flawed measure of hunger” that doesn’t reflect India’s true position.
  • The MoWCD claims that data from its Poshan Tracker portal shows a child wasting prevalence of 7.2% among under-five-year-olds, while the GHI uses a value of 18.7% for child wasting.
  • The ministry argues that two other indicators, stunting and wasting, result from complex interactions of factors like sanitation, genetics, environment, and food intake utilization, apart from hunger.
  • The MoWCD also objects to the use of a telephone-based opinion poll to calculate undernourishment, a GHI indicator. The GHI maintains that it relies on data from India’s Food Balance Sheet for this indicator.
  • The Ministry highlights that three out of the four GHI indicators are related to children’s health and cannot represent the entire population.

-Source: The Hindu

Cabinet Approves Royalty Rates for Lithium & Two Other Strategic Minerals


The Centre has approved an amendment to a key law in order to specify competitive royalty rates for the mining of three strategically significant minerals – lithium, niobium, and rare earth elements (REEs).


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Critical Minerals
  2. Identification of 30 Critical Minerals by the Indian Government
  3. Lower Royalty Rates for Strategic Minerals: Key Points
  4. Significance of Lower Royalty Rates

Critical Minerals:

  • Critical minerals are minerals that pose a relatively higher risk of supply shortage and have associated impacts on the economy, setting them apart from other raw materials.

Importance of Critical Minerals

  • These minerals are indispensable for economic development and national security, and their limited availability or concentrated extraction and processing in specific geographic areas can create vulnerabilities in global supply chains.

Applications of Critical Minerals

  • Critical minerals like lithium, graphite, cobalt, titanium, and rare earth elements play essential roles in various sectors, including high-tech electronics, telecommunications, transportation, and defense.

Strategic Value Chains

  • These minerals are part of multiple strategic value chains that encompass clean technology initiatives (e.g., zero-emission vehicles, wind turbines, solar panels), information and communication technologies (including semiconductors), and advanced manufacturing inputs and materials used in defense applications, permanent magnets, ceramics, and more.

Identification of 30 Critical Minerals by the Indian Government

  • The Indian government identified 30 critical minerals based on a report prepared by an expert team under the Ministry of Mines.
  • The list will be reviewed periodically.
  • A three-stage assessment process was employed to determine the critical minerals.
    • In the first stage, the panel examined strategies from countries like Australia, the USA, Canada, the UK, Japan, and South Korea, identifying a total of 69 critical elements/minerals.
    • The second stage involved inter-ministerial consultations to identify minerals critical to specific sectors.
    • The third stage assessment developed an empirical formula for evaluating mineral criticality, considering economic importance and supply risk. This resulted in the identification of 30 minerals critical for India, including two critical as fertilizers.

Lower Royalty Rates for Strategic Minerals: Key Points

Aligning Royalty Rates with Global Standards

  • New royalty rates have been specified by amending the Second Schedule of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act 1957 to bring India’s rates in line with global benchmarks.
  • Current Royalty Rates
  • The existing MMDR Act 1957 mandates a royalty rate of 12% of the average sale price (ASP) for minerals not specifically listed in the Schedule.

Lower Royalty Rates for Strategic Minerals

  • Following the Cabinet’s decision, lithium mining will now attract a 3% royalty based on the London Metal Exchange price.
  • Niobium will also be subject to a 3% royalty, calculated based on the ASP, for both primary and secondary sources. Niobium is used in various applications, including in alloys for jet engines and construction materials.
  • Rare Earth Elements (REEs) will have a 1% royalty based on the ASP of Rare Earth Oxide, which is the common form of ore where REEs are found.

Calculation of ASP

  • The Ministry of Mines has outlined the method for calculating the ASP of these minerals, which will determine bid parameters.

Significance of Lower Royalty Rates

  • These reduced royalty rates pave the way for the commercial exploitation of strategic minerals through auctions conducted by the central government or state governments.
  • The goal is to promote domestic mining, reduce imports, and stimulate the establishment of related end-use industries like electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage solutions.
  • The decision is also expected to generate employment in the mining sector.
  • These strategic minerals are considered crucial for India to fulfill its commitment to the energy transition and achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.

-Source: The Hindu

Study on Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI) Impacts on Global Food Production


A recent study published in the journal Nature Food highlights the potential consequences of a geoengineering technique, stratospheric aerosol intervention (SAI), on global food production.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Findings of the Study on Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI)
  2. Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI)
  3. Geoengineering Techniques

Key Findings of the Study on Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI)

Introduction to SAI

  • SAI is considered a backup plan to combat climate change if traditional mitigation methods fail.
  • It replicates volcanic eruptions by releasing sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere, forming reflective aerosol particles.

Effect on Global Temperature

  • The 2001 Mount Pinatubo eruption injected 15 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere, causing a 0.6°C global temperature drop.
  • SAI’s impact on agriculture varies based on factors like precipitation and solar radiation.

Understanding Ideal Temperatures for Crops

  • Knowing the optimal global temperatures for crop growth is crucial.
  • Computer models evaluate SAI’s effects on crops like maize, rice, soybean, and spring wheat.

Crop Production under Climate Change

  • Uncontrolled climate change favors crop production in cold, high-latitude regions like Canada and Russia.
  • Moderate SAI levels could boost food production in temperate regions like North America and Eurasia.
  • Large-scale climate intervention could enhance agricultural output in tropical areas.

Regional Variation in SAI

  • Nations may choose different SAI levels to maximize crop yields, considering their geographical and climatic conditions.
  • Additional Considerations
  • The study highlights the need to explore other consequences of SAI, including impacts on human health and ecosystems.

Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI)

SAI is a proposed solar geoengineering technique aimed at mitigating global warming.

It involves introducing aerosols into the stratosphere to create a cooling effect.

Mechanism of SAI

  • The process mimics natural occurrences like volcanic eruptions, which lead to global dimming and increased albedo, naturally cooling the Earth.
  • Albedo refers to the Earth’s surface reflecting more sunlight back into space, reducing heat absorption.

Unintended Consequences

  • While SAI offers a potential solution to global warming, it raises concerns about unintended side effects.
  • Possible consequences may include damage to the ozone layer, alterations in the hydrological cycle, changes in monsoon systems, and impacts on crop yields.

Geoengineering Techniques

  • Geoengineering refers to the deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system to combat climate change.

Categories of Geoengineering Techniques

  • Geoengineering interventions typically fall into two categories: Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) and Solar Radiation Management (SRM).
Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR)

CDR techniques aim to remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus reducing the greenhouse effect.

Examples of CDR Techniques
  • Afforestation and Reforestation:
    • Planting trees or restoring forests to enhance the natural absorption of carbon dioxide by vegetation.
  • Biochar:
    • Converting biomass into charcoal and burying it in the soil to increase carbon storage.
  • Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS):
    • Growing crops for biofuel production, capturing emitted carbon dioxide during combustion, and storing it underground or in the ocean.
  • Ocean Fertilization:
    • Adding nutrients like iron or nitrogen to the ocean to stimulate phytoplankton growth, which consumes and transfers carbon dioxide to the deep ocean.
Solar Radiation Management (SRM)

SRM techniques aim to reduce the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface, leading to global cooling.

Examples of SRM Techniques
  • Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI):
    • Introducing aerosols into the stratosphere to create a cooling effect by reflecting sunlight.
  • Space-Based Reflectors (SBR):
    • Placing mirrors or devices in Earth’s orbit to deflect or block incoming sunlight.
  • Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB):
    • Spraying sea water droplets or substances into low-level clouds over the ocean to increase their reflectivity and albedo.
  • Cirrus Cloud Thinning (CCT):
    • Reducing the formation or persistence of high-level cirrus clouds that trap heat by seeding them with ice crystals or other agents.
  • Surface Albedo Modification (SAM):
    • Changing the reflectivity of land or sea surfaces by methods such as painting roofs white, covering deserts with reflective sheets, or increasing ice cover.

-Source: Down To Earth

Multimodal AI Systems


There has been a paradigm shift within AI (Artificial Intelligence) towards Multimodal Systems, allowing users to engage with AI through a combination of text, images, sounds, and videos. These systems aim to replicate human-like cognition by encompassing multiple sensory inputs.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Multimodal AI Systems
  2. Recent Developments in Multimodal AI
  3. Advantages of Multimodal AI over Unimodal AI
  4. Applications of Multimodal AI
  5. Challenges of Multimodal AI

Multimodal AI Systems

Multimodal AI refers to artificial intelligence systems that incorporate and process multiple types or modes of data to make more accurate determinations, derive insightful conclusions, or provide precise predictions for real-world problems.

Data Modes Used

  • Multimodal AI systems are designed to train with and utilize a variety of data types, including video, audio, speech, images, text, and conventional numerical datasets.

Example: Multimodal Audio Systems

  • Multimodal audio systems operate on similar principles, as demonstrated by Whisper, OpenAI’s open-source speech-to-text translation model, which forms the foundation for GPT’s voice processing capabilities.

Recent Developments in Multimodal AI

OpenAI’s ChatGPT
  • OpenAI has recently introduced improvements to its GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 models. These enhancements enable the models to analyze images and engage in speech synthesis, resulting in more immersive interactions with users.
  • OpenAI is actively working on “Gobi,” a project with the goal of creating a dedicated multimodal AI system, separate from the GPT models.
Google’s Gemini Model
  • Google has developed a new multimodal large language model known as Gemini. This model is yet to be officially released.
  • Google’s extensive collection of images and videos from its search engine and YouTube gives it a significant advantage in the multimodal AI domain.
  • The presence of Gemini places substantial pressure on other AI systems to rapidly advance their capabilities in the multimodal space.

Advantages of Multimodal AI over Unimodal AI

  • Rich Representation of Information
    • Multimodal AI leverages a variety of data types, including text, images, and audio, resulting in a richer and more comprehensive representation of information.
  • Enhanced Contextual Understanding
    • The utilization of diverse data types enhances the contextual understanding of data, leading to more accurate predictions and well-informed decisions.
  • Improved Performance and Robustness
    • By combining data from multiple modalities, multimodal AI achieves better performance, increased robustness, and the capability to handle ambiguity effectively.
  • Broad Applicability
    • Multimodal AI broadens its applicability across various domains and facilitates cross-modal learning, making it a versatile approach.
  • Holistic Understanding
    • Multimodal AI provides a more holistic and human-like understanding of data, enabling innovative applications and deeper comprehension of complex real-world scenarios.

Applications of Multimodal AI

  • Autonomous Driving and Robotics
    • Multimodal AI finds applications in fields such as autonomous driving and robotics, where it helps process diverse data sources to make informed decisions.
  • Medicine
    • In the medical field, multimodal AI is used for analyzing complex datasets from CT scans, identifying genetic variations, and simplifying the communication of results to medical professionals.
  • Speech Translation
    • Speech translation models, such as Google Translate and Meta’s SeamlessM4T, benefit from multimodality to offer translation services across various languages and modalities.
  • Recent Developments
    • Recent developments include Meta’s ImageBind, a multimodal system capable of processing text, visual data, audio, temperature, and movement readings.
  • Future Possibilities
    • Multimodal AI explores the integration of additional sensory data like touch, smell, speech, and brain MRI signals, enabling future AI systems to simulate complex environments and scenarios.

Challenges of Multimodal AI

  • Data Complexity and Resource Intensiveness
    • The diverse and voluminous data required for Multimodal AI can pose challenges in terms of data quality, storage costs, and redundancy management, making it an expensive and resource-intensive endeavor.
  • Contextual Understanding
    • Teaching AI to understand nuanced meanings from identical input, especially in languages or expressions with context-dependent meanings, proves challenging without additional contextual cues like tone, facial expressions, or gestures.
  • Data Set Availability
    • Availability of complete and easily accessible data sets is a challenge. Public data sets may be limited, costly, or suffer from aggregation issues, affecting data integrity and potentially introducing bias into AI model training.
  • Dependency on Multiple Data Sources
    • Multimodal AI relies on data from multiple sources. If any of the data sources are missing or malfunctioning, it can result in AI malfunctions or misinterpretations, leading to uncertainty in AI responses.
  • Complex Neural Networks
    • Neural networks in Multimodal AI can be complex and challenging to interpret, making it difficult to understand how AI evaluates data and makes decisions. This lack of transparency can hinder debugging and bias elimination efforts.

-Source: The Hindu

Sutlej Yamuna Link Canal


Recently, the Supreme Court has ordered the Punjab Government to complete Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) canal, warning the Government to comply with its orders.


GS-I: Geography (Drainage System in India, Projects to improve Irrigation), GS-II: Polity and Governance (Inter-State Relations)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Sutlej Yamuna Link Canal
  2. Sharing of river waters
  3. Punjab’s argument
  4. Sutlej / Satluj River
  5. Yamuna River

Sutlej Yamuna Link Canal

  • On April 8, 1982, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi launched the construction of the SYL Canal with a groundbreaking ceremony in Kapoori village in Patiala district.
  • A stretch of 214 km was to be constructed, out of which 122 km was to cross Punjab and 92 km in Haryana. But the Akalis launched an agitation in the form of Kapoori Morcha against the construction of the canal.
  • Then in July 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and then Akali Dal chief Sant Harchand Singh Longowal signed an accord agreeing for a new tribunal to assess the water.
  • On August 20, 1985, Longowal was killed by militants, less than a month for signing the accord.
  • In other violence, labourers were shot dead in Majat village near Chunni and Bharatgarh near Ropar.
  • The construction came to a halt. In the backdrop of these incidents, Punjab leaders has been cautioning the Centre not to rake up the issue again.
The tribunal
  • The Eradi Tribunal headed by Supreme Court Judge V Balakrishna Eradi was set up to reassess availability and sharing of water.
  • In 1987, the tribunal recommended an increase in the shares of Punjab and Haryana to 5 MAF and 3.83 MAF, respectively.

Sharing of river waters

  • The canal, once completed, will enable sharing of the waters of the rivers Ravi and Beas between the two states.
  • The issue dates back to 1966 at the time of reorganisation of Punjab and formation of Haryana was formed.
  • Punjab was opposed to sharing the waters of the two rivers with Haryana, citing riparian principles.
The shares
  • A decade before the formation of Haryana, the water flowing down Ravi and Beas was assessed at 15.85 million acre feet (MAF) per year.
  • The Union government had organised a meeting in 1955 between the three stake-holders — Rajasthan, undivided Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir — and allotted 8 MAF per year to Rajasthan, 7.20 MAF to undivided Punjab and 0.65 MAF to J&K.
  • A decade after reorganisation, the Centre issued a notification allocating 3.5 MAF to Haryana out of the 7.2 MAF allotted to Punjab before reorganisation.
  • In a reassessment in 1981, the water flowing down Beas and Ravi was estimated at 17.17 MAF, of which 4.22 MAF was allocated to Punjab, 3.5 MAF to Haryana, and 8.6 MAF to Rajasthan.

Punjab’s argument

  • As per a state government study, many areas in Punjab may go dry after 2029.
  • The state has already over-exploited its groundwater for irrigation purposes as it fills granaries of the Centre by growing wheat and paddy worth Rs 70,000 crore every year.
  • As per reports, water in about 79% of the state’s area is over-exploited.
  • Out of 138 blocks, 109 blocks are “over-exploited”, two blocks are “critical” five blocks are “semi-critical” and only 22 blocks are in “safe” category.
  • In such a situation, the government says sharing water with any other state is impossible.
  • Haryana has been staking claim to the Ravi-Beas waters through the SYL Canal on the plea that providing water for irrigation was a tough task for the state.
  • In southern parts, where underground water had depleted up to 1700 feet, there was a problem of drinking water.
  • Haryana has been citing its contribution to the central food pool and arguing that it is being denied its rightful share in the water as assessed by a tribunal.

Sutlej / Satluj River

  • The Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan.
  • It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.
  • The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India.
  • It has several major hydroelectric points, including the 1,325 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,500 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam.
  • The drainage basin is mainly in India’s Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and Haryana states.
  • The source of the Sutlej is west of the catchment area of Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, as springs in an ephemeral stream.

Yamuna River

  • The river Yamuna, a significant tributary of the Ganges, flows from the Yamunotri glacier near the Bandarpoonch peaks in the Mussoorie range of the lower Himalayas, at an elevation of around 6387 metres above mean sea level in Uttarakhand’s Uttarkashi district.
  • After flowing through Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Delhi, it meets the Ganges at the Sangam (where the Kumbh mela is held) in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh.
  • 1376 kilometres in length
  • Dams of note include the Lakhwar-Vyasi Dam in Uttarakhand and the Tajewala Barrage Dam in Haryana.
  • Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, and Ken are important tributaries.

-Source: The Hindu

Goan Cashew


Recently, Goan cashew (kernel) got the geographical indication (GI) tag.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Cashew in India
  2. Special Characteristics of Tangsa Textile
  3. Geographical Indications (GI) Tag

Cashew in India

  • Cashew is a significant plantation crop in India.
  • It was originally native to northeast Brazil in Latin America and was introduced to Goa by the Portuguese in the 16th century, specifically in 1570.
  • Upon its introduction to the Indian coasts, cashew was primarily seen as a crop for afforestation and soil conservation.
  • In Goa, it occupies the largest area among horticultural crops.
Climatic Conditions
  • Soil and Climate: Well-drained deep sandy loam soils are most suitable for cashew cultivation. Generally, various soil types, from sandy to laterite, are well-suited for this crop.
    • It thrives in the hot and humid conditions of the Indian coastal areas.
  • Temperature: Cashew grows well in temperatures ranging from 20°C to 38°C.
  • Relative Humidity: Ideal relative humidity falls in the range of 60% to 95%.
  • Rainfall: Annual precipitation should typically range from 2000mm to 3500mm.
  • Low temperatures and frost are not favorable for cashew plantations.
  • Cashew cultivation is expanding to non-traditional areas in the plains of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, and certain parts of the North East hill region.

Geographical Indications (GI) Tag

Definition and Importance:
  • Geographical Indications of Goods indicate the country or place of origin of a product.
  • They assure consumers of the product’s quality and distinctiveness derived from its specific geographical locality.
  • GI tags are an essential component of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and are protected under international agreements like the Paris Convention and TRIPS.
Administration and Registration:
  • Geographical Indications registration in India is governed by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.
  • The registration and protection are administered by the Geographical Indication Registry under the Department of Industry Promotion and Internal Trade (DIPIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • The registration is valid for 10 years, and it can be renewed for further periods of 10 years each.
Significance and Examples:
  • GI tags provide a unique identity and reputation to products based on their geographical origin.
  • The first product in India to receive a GI tag was Darjeeling tea.
  • Karnataka has the highest number of GI tags with 47 registered products, followed by Tamil Nadu with 39.
Ownership and Proprietorship:
  • Any association, organization, or authority established by law can be a registered proprietor of a GI tag.
  • The registered proprietor’s name is entered in the Register of Geographical Indication for the applied product.
  • Protection and Enforcement:
  • Geographical Indications protect the interests of producers and prevent unauthorized use of the product’s name or origin.
  • Enforcement of GI rights helps maintain the quality and reputation of the products associated with their specific geographical regions.
Location of the Geographical Indications Registry:
  • The Geographical Indications Registry is located in Chennai, India.

-Source: Indian Express

Rasmussen’s Encephalitis


Recently, the special surgery operation was performed by doctors at Loma Linda University Health in California by switching off half of the brain of an ailing girl in order to save her life who was suffering from Rasmussen’s encephalitis .


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Rasmussen’s Encephalitis
  2. Treatment

Rasmussen’s Encephalitis:

  • Rasmussen’s encephalitis is an extremely rare, chronic inflammatory neurological disease.
  • It typically affects one hemisphere (half) of the brain and is characterized by:
  • Frequent and severe seizures.
  • Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
  • Mental deterioration.
  • Progressive loss of neurological functions, including motor skills, speech, and eventual paralysis on one side of the body (hemiparesis).
Age of Onset:
  • While it most commonly occurs in children under the age of 10, it can also affect adolescents and adults.


  • Antiseizure Medications: These medications are often used to manage seizures, although they might not completely eliminate them. They can help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.
  • Immunotherapy: Early use of immunotherapy may help control seizures or prevent further immune-related brain damage.
  • Brain Surgery (Hemispherectomy): This surgical procedure is considered the most effective treatment for seizures in Rasmussen’s encephalitis. It involves the removal or disconnection of half of the patient’s brain from the rest of their brain.

-Source: Hindustan Times

December 2023