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Current Affairs 31 July 2023

CONTENTS

  1. Mob Lynching
  2. Graded Response Action Plan
  3. National Education Policy
  4. UDAN 5.0 scheme
  5. Fast Radio Bursts (FRB)
  6. Parkachik Glacier
  7. PM SHRI Schools
  8. GOBARdhan Scheme

Mob Lynching


Context:

The SC has asked the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and the governments of Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, MP and Haryana an explanation for their “consistent failure” to act against lynching and mob violence committed on Muslims by cow vigilantes.

Relevance:

GS II: Governance policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Details
  2. Mob Lynching
  3. Supreme Court’s Observations
  4. Remedial Directions Given by the Supreme Court to Address Mob Lynching
  5. Contempt Petition

Details:

  • This is in response to a petition filed by the National Federation of Indian Women (NFIW), highlighting that the “rampant rise” in lynchings violates constitutional guarantees provided under following articles of the Constitution–
    • Articles 14 (equality before the law),
    • Article 15 (religious non-discrimination) and
    • Article 21 (right to life)

Mob Lynching

Definition:

  • Mob lynching is a disturbing phenomenon where common people take the law into their own hands and resort to violence, often resulting in the killing of individuals without due process.
  • It involves violating the basic human rights of others in the name of achieving their distorted version of justice.

Causes:

  • Mob lynching is fueled by factors like intolerance, biases, and vigilantism prevailing in society.
  • Lack of speedy justice and inefficiency in the police administration also contribute to this alarming trend.

Types in India:

  • In India, mob lynching incidents are observed in various forms, such as communal-based violence, cow-related mob lynching, suspicion of child lifting, and theft cases.

Supreme Court’s Observations:

  • The Supreme Court of India has taken note of the “alarming rise” in mob lynching cases despite a judgment in Tehseen Poonawala versus Union of India in 2018.
  • The court has issued notices to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and police chiefs of six states to explain the rise in such incidents.
Significance of the Tehseen Poonawala Judgment:
  • The Tehseen Poonawala judgment emphasized that it is the “sacrosanct duty” of the state to protect the lives of its citizens.
  • The court highlighted the erosion of values of tolerance in society, leading to an increase in incidents of lynching.
  • It pointed out bystander apathy, inertia of law enforcement, and the role of social media in exacerbating the problem.
  • The judgment stressed that vigilantism, be it cow vigilantism or any other form, must not be allowed to take shape, as it leads to anarchy and disorder.

Remedial Directions Given by the Supreme Court to Address Mob Lynching:

  • Designated Nodal Officer: Appointment of a designated nodal officer, not below the rank of Superintendent of Police, to take preventive measures against prejudice-motivated crimes like mob violence and lynching.
  • Immediate FIR Lodging: Local police must immediately lodge an FIR if an incident of lynching or mob violence comes to their notice.
  • Duties of Station House Officer: The Station House Officer who registers the FIR must inform the nodal officer in the district. The nodal officer should ensure that the families of the victims are spared from any further harassment.
  • Personal Monitoring of Investigation: The nodal officer should personally monitor the investigation of the crime, ensuring that the chargesheet is filed within the stipulated period of law.
  • Compensation Scheme: Implementation of a scheme to compensate victims of lynching and mob violence.
  • Accountability of Officers: Any failure to comply with the court’s directions by police or district administration officers will be treated as an act of deliberate negligence and/or misconduct.
  • Disciplinary Action: States should take disciplinary action against their officials if they fail to prevent an incident of mob lynching, despite having prior knowledge of it.

Contempt Petition:

  • The Centre and States are facing a separate contempt petition in the Supreme Court for non-compliance with the Tehseen Poonawala judgment.
  • The court directed the State governments to provide year-wise data on complaints received, FIRs registered, and chargesheets filed in lynching cases, along with preventive and remedial measures taken.
  • The Centre was directed to file an affidavit on the outcome of a proposed meeting between the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and department heads of State governments to discuss compliance with the judgment.

-Source: The Hindu


Graded Response Action Plan


Context:

Recently, the Commission for Air Quality Management in NCR & Adjoining Areas (CAQM) announced revision of the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP) which will come into force w.e.f. 1st October, 2023 in the entire National Capital Region.

Relevance:

GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is the Graded Response Action Plan?
  2. How is the GRAP different this year?
  3. Who will implement and enforce the GRAP?
  4. What are the measures that will be enforced?

What is the Graded Response Action Plan?

  • GRAP is a set of emergency measures that kick in to prevent further deterioration of air quality once it reaches a certain threshold.
    • Stage 1 of GRAP is activated when the AQI is in the ‘poor’ category (201 to 300), for instance, the AQI in Delhi was 211.
    • The second, third and fourth stages will be activated three days ahead of the AQI reaching the ‘very poor’ category (301 to 400), ‘severe’ category (401 to 450) and ‘severe +’ category (above 450) respectively.
  • For this, the CAQM is relying on air quality and meteorological forecasts by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) and the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
  • Measures being imposed under the previous categories will continue even when the subsequent category is activated, that is, if measures under Stage-2 are activated, measures under Stage-1 will continue to remain in place.
Other Details:
  • The CAQM revised the Graded Response Action Plan earlier this year.
  • The GRAP was first notified in January 2017 by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
  • This was based on a plan that was submitted by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in November 2016. According to the notification, the task of implementing the GRAP fell on the now dissolved Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority for the NCR.
  • From 2021 onwards, the GRAP is being implemented by the CAQM.

How is the GRAP different this year?

  • In the version of the GRAP that was notified in 2017, measures kicked in after pollution concentrations reached a certain level.
    • This year, measures are pre-emptive and will kick in based on forecasts in an attempt to prevent the AQI from deteriorating further.
  • The older version of the GRAP was enforced based only on the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10.
    • This year, GRAP is being enforced based on the AQI, which takes other pollutants also into account, such as ozone, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.

Who will implement and enforce the GRAP?

  • The CAQM has constituted a sub-committee for the operationalization of the GRAP.
  • This body includes officials from the CAQM, member secretaries of pollution control boards of Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, the Central Pollution Control Board, a scientist from the IMD and one from the IITM, and Health Advisor, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Maulana Azad Medical College. The sub-committee is required to meet frequently to issue orders to invoke the GRAP.
  • The orders and directions of the CAQM will prevail in case of any conflict between directions issued by the State governments and the CAQM.
  • Measures under the different categories of the plan are to be enforced by the pollution control boards of the NCR states and the concerned departments and agencies, including the traffic police, the Transport Department and road owning and construction agencies.

What are the measures that will be enforced?

Stage 1 (AQI ‘Poor’ – 201 to 300)

  • Stopping all construction and demolition activities with plot size of 500 square metres or more which have not been registered on dust mitigation monitoring portals
  • Mechanised sweeping, water sprinkling on roads
  • Enforcing guidelines on use of anti-smog guns at construction sites
  • Enforcing ban on open burning of waste and PUC (pollution under control norms) for vehicles
  • DISCOMs to minimise power supply interruptions in NCR
  • Encourage offices to start unified commute for employees to reduce traffic

Stage 2 (AQI ‘Very poor’ – 301 to 400)

  • Not allowing coal/firewood in tandoors at hotels
  • Stopping use of diesel generator sets except for essential and emergency services (hospitals, railways, metro services, airports, water pumping stations, “projects of national importance”)
  • Enhance parking fees to discourage private transport
  • Augment CNG/ electric bus and metro services by procuring additional fleet and increasing the frequency of service

Stage 3 (AQI ‘Severe’ – 401 to 450)

  • Ban on construction and demolition activities except railway, metro, hospitals, sanitation projects etc, linear public projects like highways, roads, flyovers
  • Closure of industries that have PNG supply and are not running on approved fuels. In industrial areas that don’t have PNG supply, industries not running on approved fuels will operate only for five days a week
  • State governments in NCR may impose restrictions on BS III petrol and BS IV diesel four wheelers

Stage 4 (AQI ‘Severe +’ – more than 450)

  • Stop entry of truck traffic into Delhi (except for essentials, CNG and electric trucks)
  • Ban on plying of Delhi registered diesel medium and heavy goods vehicles in Delhi, except for essentials
  • Ban on plying of 4-wheeler diesel vehicles in Delhi and districts of NCR bordering Delhi, except BS-VI vehicles and vehicles used for essential or emergency services
  • State Governments may consider additional emergency measures like closure of schools, plying of vehicles on odd-even basis
  • NCR State governments to decide on allowing public, municipal and private offices to work on 50% strength and the rest to work from home
  • Ban C&D activities in linear public projects such as highways, roads, flyovers

-Source: The Hindu


National Education Policy


Context:

Speaking at an event to mark the third anniversary of the National Education Policy (NEP), Prime Minister pitched for education in the mother tongue. He said that through the NEP, the country has started leaving behind the inferiority complex generated after portraying the country’s rich languages as “backward”. 

Relevance:

GS-II: Education

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Significance
  2. Important Highlights regarding School Education
  3. Important Highlights regarding Higher Education

Significance

  • This is the first education policy of the 21st century and replaces the thirty-four-year-old National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986.
  • Built on the foundational pillars of Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability and Accountability, this policy is  aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and aims to transform India into a vibrant knowledge society and global knowledge superpower by making both school and college education more holistic, flexible, multidisciplinary, suited to 21st century needs and aimed at bringing out the unique capabilities of each student.

Important Highlights regarding School Education

Ensuring Universal Access at all levels of school education at all levels- preschool to secondary

  • Providing infrastructure support, innovative education centres to bring back dropouts into the mainstream, tracking of students and their learning levels, facilitating multiple pathways to learning involving both formal and non-formal education modes etc.

Emphasis on Early Childhood Care and Education

  • The 10+2 structure of school curricula is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively. This will bring the hitherto uncovered age group of 3-6 years under school curriculum.
  • NCERT will develop a National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for children up to the age of 8.
  • The planning and implementation of ECCE will be carried out jointly by the Ministries of HRD, Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare (HFW), and Tribal Affairs.

Attaining Foundational Literacy and Numeracy

  • NEP 2020 calls for setting up of a National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by MHRD.
  • States will prepare an implementation plan for attaining universal foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary schools for all learners by grade 3 by 2025.A
  • National Book Promotion Policy is to be formulated.

Reforms in school curricula and pedagogy

  • The school curricula and pedagogy will aim for holistic development of learners by equipping them with the key 21st century skills, reduction in curricular content to enhance essential learning and critical thinking and greater focus on experiential learning.
  • Students will have increased flexibility and choice of subjects.
  • There will be no rigid separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams.
  • A new and comprehensive National Curricular Framework for School Education, NCFSE 2020-21, will be developed by the NCERT.

Multilingualism and the power of language

  • The policy has emphasized mother tongue/local language/regional language as the medium of instruction at least till Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond. Sanskrit to be offered at all levels of school and higher education as an option for students, including in the three-language formula.
  • Indian Sign Language (ISL) will be standardized across the country, and National and State curriculum materials developed, for use by students with hearing impairment.

Assessment Reforms

  • NEP 2020 envisages a more competency-based formative assessment which promotes learning and development, and tests higher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking, and conceptual clarity.
  • All students will take school examinations in Grades 3, 5, and 8 which will be conducted by the appropriate authority.
  • Board exams for Grades 10 and 12 will be continued, but redesigned with holistic development as the aim.
  • A new National Assessment Centre, PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development), will be set up as a standard-setting body.

Equitable and Inclusive Education

  • Emphasis on Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDGs) (gender, socio-cultural, and geographical identities and disabilities) along with setting up of   Gender Inclusion Fund and also Special Education Zones for disadvantaged regions and groups.
  • Every state/district will be encouraged to establish “Bal Bhavans” as a special daytime boarding school, to participate in art-related, career-related, and play-related activities. Free school infrastructure can be used as Samajik Chetna Kendras.

Robust Teacher Recruitment and Career Path

  • Teachers will be recruited through robust, transparent processes and promotions will be merit-based.
  • A common National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) will be developed by the National Council for Teacher Education by 2022.

Standard-setting and Accreditation for School Education

  • NEP 2020 envisages clear, separate systems for policy making, regulation, operations and academic matters. States/UTs will set up independent State School Standards Authority (SSSA).

Important Highlights regarding Higher Education

Increase GER to 50 % by 2035

  • NEP 2020 aims to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education including vocational education from just over 25% (2018) to 50% by 2035.

Holistic Multidisciplinary Education

  • The policy envisages broad based, multi-disciplinary, holistic Under Graduate education with flexible curricula, creative combinations of subjects, integration of vocational education and multiple entry and exit points with appropriate certification.
  • An Academic Bank of Credit is to be established for digitally storing academic credits earned from different (Higher Education Institutions) HEIs.
  • Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs), at par with IITs, IIMs, to be set up.
  • The National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body for fostering a strong research culture and building research capacity.

Regulation

  • Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body the for entire higher education (excluding medical and legal).

Rationalised Institutional Architecture

  • Higher education institutions will be transformed into large, well resourced, vibrant multidisciplinary institutions providing high quality teaching, research, and community engagement.

Teacher Education

  • A new and comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, NCFTE 2021, will be formulated by the NCTE.

Financial support for students

  • Efforts will be made to incentivize the merit of students belonging to SC, ST, OBC, and other SEDGs.
  • The National Scholarship Portal will be expanded to support, foster, and track the progress of students receiving scholarships.

Open and Distance learning, Online/Digital Education

  • Measures such as online courses and digital repositories, funding for research, improved student services, credit-based recognition of MOOCs, etc., will be taken to ensure it is at par with the highest quality in-class programmes.
  • A comprehensive set of recommendations for promoting online education consequent to the recent rise in epidemics and pandemics.
  • An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology.

Promotion of Indian languages

  • NEP recommends setting an Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI), National Institute (or Institutes) for Pali, Persian and Prakrit, strengthening of Sanskrit and all language departments in HEIs

-Source: The Hindu


UDAN 5.0 scheme


Context:

Out of the 479 airport routes that were revived by the Union Government, under the Regional Connectivity Scheme – UDAN, 225 have ceased operations.

Relevance:

GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN)
  2. Different Phases of the Scheme:
  3. Objectives
  4. Performance of the UDAN Scheme: Enhancing Air Connectivity

About Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN):

Nodal:  Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA)

  • It is a regional airport development and “Regional Connectivity Scheme” (RCS) of the Union Government of India.
  • The scheme envisages providing connectivity to un-served and under-served airports of the country through the revival of existing airstrips and airports.
Funding Pattern for the Scheme

Concession by Central Government, State Governments/UTs, and Airport Operators:

  • The scheme aims to reduce the cost of operations on regional routes.
  • The Central Government, State Governments/UTs, and airport operators will provide concessions to airlines operating on these routes.

Financial Viability Gap Funding (VGF) Support:

  • VGF support will be provided to bridge the gap, if any, between the cost of airline operations and expected revenues on regional routes.
  • The VGF will be a joint effort between the Ministry of Civil Aviation and the respective State Government.

VGF Sharing Ratios:

  • The VGF support will be shared between the Ministry of Civil Aviation and the State Government in a ratio of 80:20.
  • For States in the North-Eastern region and Union Territories, the VGF sharing ratio will be 90:10.

Different Phases of the Scheme:

UDAN 1.0

  • Under this phase, 5 airlines companies were awarded 128 flight routes to 70 airports (including 36 newly made operational airports)

UDAN 2.0

  • In 2018, the Ministry of Civil Aviation announced 73 underserved and unserved airports.
  • For the first time, helipads were also connected under phase 2 of UDAN scheme.

UDAN 3.0

Key Features of UDAN 3 included:

  • Inclusion of Tourism Routes under UDAN 3 in coordination with the Ministry of Tourism.
  • Inclusion of Seaplanes for connecting Water Aerodromes.
  • Bringing in a number of routes in the North-East Region under the ambit of UDAN.

UDAN 4.0:

  • The 4th round of UDAN was launched in December 2019 with a special focus on North-Eastern Regions, Hilly States, and Islands.
    • The airports that had already been developed by Airports Authority of India (AAI) are given higher priority for the award of VGF (Viability Gap Funding) under the Scheme.
    • Under UDAN 4, the operation of helicopter and seaplanes is also been incorporated.

UDAN 5.0 Scheme

 The 5th round of the scheme has introduced several changes, including:

  • Focus on Category-2 and Category-3: The current round of the scheme is targeted towards Category-2 (20-80 seats) and Category-3 (>80 seats) aircraft.
  • No restriction on stage length: The earlier cap of 600 km on stage length has been waived off, allowing airlines to operate flights on any distance between the origin and destination.
  • Increased Viability Gap Funding (VGF) cap: The VGF to be provided will be capped at 600 km stage length for both Priority and Non-Priority areas, which was earlier capped at 500 km.
  • Shorter deadline for commencement of operations: Airlines would be required to commence operations within 4 months of the award of the route. Earlier this deadline was 6 months.

Objective:

  • To create affordable yet economically viable and profitable flights on regional routes so that flying becomes affordable to the common man even in small towns.
  • To stimulate regional air connectivity and making air travel affordable to the masses.
  • The scheme envisages providing connectivity to un-served and underserved airports of the country through the revival of existing air-strips and airports. The scheme is operational for a period of 10 years.
  • UDAN is a market driven ongoing scheme where bidding rounds are conducted periodically for covering more destinations/stations and routes under the scheme.
  • Interested airlines assess the demand on particular routes connecting these airports and submit their proposals at the time of bidding.

Performance of the UDAN Scheme

Growth in Connected Airports:

  • Before the launch of the UDAN Scheme, India had only 76 airports connected by scheduled commercial flights since 1911.
  • Since 2014, the number of operational airports has significantly increased to 141, demonstrating substantial growth in air connectivity.

Expansion of Routes:

  • The UDAN Scheme has initiated 479 new routes, creating a network that reaches various regions across the country.
  • As a result, air connectivity has been extended to more than 29 States and Union Territories, connecting previously underserved areas.

Passenger Outreach:

  • The UDAN Scheme has had a notable impact on passenger accessibility and convenience.
  • Over one crore passengers have availed the benefits of this scheme, enjoying improved air travel opportunities and enhanced connectivity.

-Source: The Hindu


Fast Radio Bursts (FRB)


Context:

Recently, an international team of astronomers studied repeating Fast Radio Bursts (FRB), FRB 20190520B, using the Green Bank Telescope in the U.S. and the Parkes Observatory in Australia. The report was published in the journal Science.

Relevance:

GS III- Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is an FRB?
  2. Why are they significant?

What is an FRB?

  • Since the first FRB was spotted in 2007, researchers have been trying to determine where they came from.
  • FRBs are essentially brilliant radio wave bursts (radio waves can be produced by astronomical objects with changing magnetic fields).
  • The X-ray component of the simultaneous bursts was detected by several satellites, including NASA’s Wind mission; in addition, a NASA-funded project called Survey for Transient Astronomical Radio Emission 2 (STARE2) also detected the radio burst;
  • However, because of their millisecond durations, it is challenging to detect them and determine their position in the sky.
Why are they significant?
  • First noticed in 2018 by the Canadian observatory the waves have created ripples across the globe for one reason — they arrive in a pattern.
  • This gave birth to theories that they could be from an alien civilization.
  • Initially, it was believed that the collision of black holes or neutron stars triggers them.
  • But the discovery of repeating FRBs debunked the theory of colliding objects.

Key Highlights of the Study on Fast Radio Burst (FRB) 20190520B:

Highly Variable Faraday Rotation Measure:

  • The Faraday rotation measure of the repeating FRB 20190520B was found to be highly variable, showing two reversals in direction.
  • The Faraday rotation measure indicates the strength of the FRB’s magnetic field.

Binary Star System Hypothesis:

  • The variations in the FRB’s magnetic field strength and the direction of reversal led researchers to propose that the FRB source orbits a binary star system.
  • The companion star in this system could be a massive star or a black hole.
  • The study suggests that “all repeating FRBs could be in binaries,” though further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Turbulent Magnetized Plasma Environment:

  • The changes observed in the magnetic field and electron density around the FRB source indicate the presence of a turbulent magnetized plasma environment.
  • This environment likely influences the behavior of FRB signals.

Role of Radio Telescopes:

  • The study highlights the significance of advanced radio telescopes like the Very Large Array and the Deep Synoptic Array-110.
  • These telescopes enable precise localization of FRBs and provide valuable data to understand their sources and characteristics.

Advancing Cosmic Understanding:

  • Radio astronomy plays a crucial role in unraveling cosmic mysteries and deepening our understanding of the universe.
  • The study of FRBs provides valuable insights into intergalactic phenomena and celestial processes.

-Source: Down to earth


Parkachik Glacier


Context:

A new study by scientists of Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology has found that three glacial lakes are likely to form around Parkachik Glacier in Ladakh due to rapid ice melt.

Relevance:

GS I: Geography

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Parkachik Glacier
  2. Key Facts about Zanskar Ranges

Parkachik Glacier

  • The Parkachik glacier is one of the largest glaciers in the Suru River valley, located in the western Himalayas.
  • It covers an area of 53 square km and stretches for 14 km in length.
  • The Suru River valley is a part of the southern Zanskar Ranges.
Reasons for Rapid Melting:
  • Global Warming: The glacier’s rapid melting can be attributed to the effects of global warming, leading to increased temperatures in the region.
  • Lower Altitude: Another reason for its faster melting is that the Parkachik glacier is situated at a lower altitude compared to other glaciers in the Zanskar region.

Key Facts about Zanskar Ranges:

  • Zanskar is a high-altitude semi-desert located on the northern flank of the Great Himalayan Range.
  • The mountain range acts as a climatic barrier, shielding Ladakh and Zanskar from most of the monsoon, resulting in a warm and dry climate in the summer.

Flora:

  • Vegetation in Zanskar is primarily found in the lower reaches of the valleys and comprises alpine and tundra species.

Fauna:

  • Zanskar is home to diverse wildlife, including marmots, bears, wolves, snow leopards, kiangs (Tibetan wild ass), bharals (blue sheep), alpine ibex, wild sheep and goats, and the lammergeier (a large vulture).

-Source: Indian Express


PM SHRI Schools


Context:

Prime Minister will inaugurate Akhil Bhartiya Shiksha Samagam 2023 and also release the first instalment of funds under the PM SHRI Scheme at the event.

Relevance:

GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About PM SHRI Schools
  2. Key features
  3. Aim

About PM SHRI Schools:

  • This will be a new centrally sponsored scheme for upgradation and development of more than 14,500 Schools across the country by strengthening the selected existing schools from amongst schools managed by Central Government/ State/ UT Government/ local bodies.
  • PM SHRI Schools will showcase all components of the National Education Policy 2020 and act as exemplar schools and also offer mentorship to other schools in their vicinity.
Implementation strategy
  • PM SHRI Schools would be implemented through the existing administrative structure available for Samagra Shiksha, KVS & NVS. The other autonomous bodies would be involved on specific project basis as required.
  • These schools shall be monitored vigorously to assess progress and understand the challenges faced in implementation of National Education Policy 2020.

Beneficiaries

  • More than 18 lakh students are expected to be direct beneficiaries of the scheme. Futher impact will be generated through the mentoring and handholding of the schools in vicinity of PM SHRI schools.

Key features

  •  PM SHRI will provide high-quality education in an equitable, inclusive and joyful school environment that takes care of the diverse background, multilingual needs, and different academic abilities of children and makes them active participants in their own learning process as per the vision of NEP 2020.
  • It will provide leadership to other schools in their respective regions by providing mentorship.
  • The PM SHRI  Schools will be developed as Green schools, incorporating environment friendly aspects like solar panels and LED lights, nutrition gardens with natural farming, waste management, plastic free, water conservation and harvesting, study of traditions/practices related to protection of environment, climate change related hackathon and awareness generation to adopt sustainable lifestyle.
  • Pedagogy adopted in these schools will be more experiential, holistic, integrated, play/toy-based inquiry-driven, discovery-oriented, learner-centred, discussion-based, flexible and enjoyable.
  • Focus will be on learning outcomes of every child in every grade. Assessment at all levels will be based on conceptual understanding and application of knowledge to real life situations and will be competency-based.
  • Assessment of the resources available and their effectiveness in terms of availability, adequacy, appropriateness, and utilisation for each of the domains and their key performance indicators will be done and gaps will be filled in a systematic and planned manner.
  • Linkage with Sector Skill Councils and local industry for enhancing employability and providing better employment opportunities will be explored.
  • A School Quality Assessment Framework (SQAF) is being developed, specifying the key performance indicators to measure outcomes. Quality evaluation of these schools at regular interval will be undertaken to ensure the desired standards.

Aim:

  • The aim of these schools will not only be qualitative teaching, learning and cognitive development, but also creating holistic and well-rounded individuals equipped with key 21st century skills.
  • They will provide leadership in their respective regions in providing high-quality education in an equitable, inclusive and joyful school environment that takes care of the diverse background, multilingual needs, and different academic abilities of children and makes them active participants in their own learning process as per the vision of NEP 2020.

-Source: Hindustan Times


GOBARdhan Scheme


Context:

Over 1,200 biogas plants have registered on the Gobardhan portal since it was launched, according to an official release.

Relevance:

GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Unified Registration Portal
  2. GOBARdhan Scheme

About Unified Registration Portal/ GOBARdhan Portal :

  • The Unified Registration Portal is a centralized repository for investment and participation in the Biogas/CBG (Compressed Biogas) sector in India.
  • Its primary objective is to simplify the process of setting up CBG/Biogas plants across the country.
  • The portal allows government, cooperative, or private entities involved in or planning to establish Biogas/CBG/Bio-CNG plants to obtain a registration number by enrolling in the portal.
  • This registration number provides access to various benefits and support from the Ministries and Departments of the Government of India.

GOBARdhan Scheme:

  • The GOBARdhan Scheme, which stands for Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan, is a significant initiative of the Government of India.
  • It was launched in 2018 as a national priority project under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen-Phase II program.
  • The aim of the scheme is to convert cattle dung, agricultural residue, and other organic waste into Biogas, CBG, and bio-fertilizers to generate wealth and energy.
  • The scheme adopts a comprehensive approach involving various government departments to promote a circular economy by transforming waste into valuable resources.
  • The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, is the nodal ministry responsible for the implementation of the GOBARdhan Scheme.

-Source: The Hindu


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