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Why in news?

  • Assam is facing crisis through a series of viral and pest attacks, Districts from different parts of Assam have reported cases of dengue and acute encephalitis syndrome.
  • The heavy rainfall in the northern parts of the State had seen two rivers – Jia-Bharali and Puthimari – flowing above the danger mark.
  • 2,980 people across three villages having been affected by the flood.
  • A major worry for the Animal Husbandry department is preventing African swine fever (ASF) from getting to domestic pigs in flood-prone areas.

Japanese encephalitis

  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes.
  • JEV is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many countries of Asia with an estimated 68 000 clinical cases every year.
  • JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus).
  • There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection.
  • Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JE.

Dengue fever

  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
  • In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into severe dengue, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.
  • Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes type, principally A. aegypti.
  • Dengue is essentially a tropical disease that occurs in the countries around the Equator, hot weather and intermittent rainfall favour the sustenance of Aedes aegypti the vector transmitting the dengue virus
  • Dengue is caused by virus (DENV of 4 types)
  • National dengue day is observed on May 16th in India.

-Source: The Hindu

December 2023