Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry

Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 28 June 2024

  1. It is Time for India to Reclaim its Voice on Tibet
  2. Venture Capital and Private Equity Drive Growth Globally


The visit of a delegation of U.S. lawmakers to Dharamshala clearly signaled its purpose. This delegation arrived just days after the ‘Promoting a Resolution to the Tibet-China Dispute Act’ passed in both Houses of the U.S. Congress and awaited President Joe Biden’s signature. The delegation included both Democrat and Republican co-authors of the Bill, invited by the Central Tibetan Administration, which oversees the affairs of the global Tibetan diaspora, for a special facilitation.



  • India and its Neighborhood- Relations
  • Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

Mains Question:

India must avoid ceding the centre stage in its own region on foreign policy and on Tibet issues. Discuss in the context of the recent visit of a delegation of U.S. lawmakers to Dharamshala. (10 Marks, 150 Words).

New Delhi’s Stand:

  • Under these circumstances, New Delhi was undoubtedly aware of the speeches they would deliver, condemning China for its repression of the Tibetan people, advocating for the resumption of talks between the Dalai Lama’s representatives and Beijing that were halted in 2010, and calling for a Free Tibet.
  • Former House Speaker Nancy Pelosi stated, “This bill sends a message to the Chinese government that we are clear in our stance on this issue, for the freedom of Tibet.
  • [The Dalai Lama’s] legacy will endure forever, but you, the President of China, will eventually be forgotten and credited for nothing.”

Weakness, not Strength:

  • While the sharp tone of these comments and the presence of U.S. officials and lawmakers in Dharamshala are not unprecedented, this marks the first public rally of its kind held in India in recent years.
  • India’s External Affairs Minister hosted the delegation for a late dinner on the same evening as the rally, and the Prime Minister met with them the following day, suggesting that New Delhi’s decision was carefully considered.
  • Some view this as a significant message from New Delhi to Beijing amid ongoing tensions, especially concerning efforts to resolve the military standoff along the Line of Actual Control since the deadly 2020 Galwan clash.
  • However, New Delhi’s choice to allow American politicians to prominently address the Tibetan refugee community in India to promote a U.S. law and advocate U.S. policy does not demonstrate strength; rather, it could be perceived as a sign of weakness.
  • It also poses the risk of losing control over a meticulously crafted foreign policy narrative concerning Tibet.
  • India has refrained from publicly expressing concerns about the treatment of Tibetans, contrasting with its actions since 1959—providing refuge to the Dalai Lama and allowing Tibetan refugees  to settle in India, actions that speak volumes.
  • Even today, Tibetans continue to cross the Himalayas seeking sanctuary in India. Often, parents send only their children, fearing the future implications of Tibet’s educational curriculum being aligned more closely with mainland China’s system, enforced rigorously by the Chinese Communist Party.
  • Given India’s own sensitivities regarding sovereignty and territorial integrity, New Delhi has developed its own approach to the Tibet issue and its relations with China.
  • Since 1954, India has “recognized” the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) as part of the People’s Republic of China.
  • Since 2010, India has refrained from articulating a ‘One China’ policy or discussing Tibet in official statements due to China’s actions, including its disregard for India’s territorial integrity by renaming places in Arunachal Pradesh and issuing stapled visas to residents of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Despite China’s accusations labeling the Dalai Lama as a “separatist” or “splittist,” India maintains that he is a revered spiritual leader.
  • Additionally, India does not officially recognize the Tibetan Government in Exile or the Parliament in Exile as more than organizational bodies for the Tibetan community, both within India and abroad.
  • Although the Indian Prime Minister invited the Tibetan Sikyong (elected leader) to his swearing-in ceremony in 2014, he did not extend the same invitation in 2019 or this year.
  • In 2018, a government circular reminded officials of India’s policy, advising them not to attend events commemorating the 60th year since the Dalai Lama’s flight to India.
  • New Delhi has become more sensitive to such issues, as evidenced by its objections to U.S. Ambassadors visiting Pakistan-occupied Kashmir and the platform given to political or extremist Khalistani separatist rallies and referendums in the U.S., U.K., Canada, and Australia.

Moving out of the Picture:

  • If the government intends to adopt a more strident position on Tibet similar to that of the U.S., then Indian officials and leaders should have made the statements addressed to Tibetans in Dharamshala, where U.S. lawmakers spoke and were met with waving U.S. flags (with far fewer Indian flags in sight).
  • The redundancy of allowing the U.S. delegation to speak is underscored by the fact that the Dalai Lama traveled to the U.S. for medical treatment just days after their visit, meaning the U.S. lawmakers could have met him in Washington, DC instead.
  • The main issue with allowing U.S. leaders to direct messages at Beijing from India, and then having Beijing respond directly, is that India is being sidelined in a matter where it has historically been the most significant external player.
  • This situation is similar to India’s challenges in other parts of South Asia, including the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and the Indian Ocean islands, where its influence is being eroded by growing U.S.-China rivalries.


With the U.S. giving the Karmapa a home and accepting more Tibetan refugees, and China tightening its control over Tibetan Buddhist monasteries  in the TAR, India must reconsider the future of its own policy, particularly regarding the Dalai Lama’s succession. New Delhi must act decisively to reclaim its voice and control over its policy narrative, avoiding being overshadowed by other nations.


In recent years, venture capital (VC) and private equity (PE) have become significant drivers of global innovation and economic growth. This trend marks a crucial transformation in the financial sector, reshaping industries and promoting entrepreneurship in unprecedented ways.


GS3- Growth and Development

Mains Question:

Venture capital (VC) and private equity (PE) reshape industries and foster entrepreneurship, marking a pragmatic shift in the global financial landscape. Discuss. (15 Marks, 250 Words).

About Venture Capital and Private Equity:

  • Venture capital and private equity are distinct forms of financial support utilized by companies at different stages of development.
  • Private equity involves substantial investments in established companies, whereas venture capital typically involves smaller investments in early-stage companies led by new entrepreneurs who are pursuing innovative ideas and face high risks.
  • Venture capital refers to funding provided by individuals or investors to startups or small companies aiming to introduce new concepts and led by fresh entrepreneurs. These companies often cannot secure funding through public means and rely on venture capital instead.
  • Despite the high risk involved, venture capital firms support businesses in their initial stages before potential public offerings.
  • This funding method is popular for raising capital beyond traditional options such as bank loans or debt instruments, with investors known as venture capitalists providing equity capital.
  • On the other hand, private equity entails investments made by companies or investors into privately held firms that are not listed on stock exchanges.
  • High-net-worth firms or individuals typically make these investments, often acquiring shares of private companies or taking public companies private to delist them from stock exchanges.
  • Private equity firms focus on acquiring existing companies and helping them grow and expand, making this sector an integral part of financial services and an attractive funding avenue.
  • Venture capital, which specializes in funding early-stage startups with high growth potential, has seen significant growth fueled by technological progress and changing consumer preferences.
  • Startups utilizing technologies like artificial intelligence, biotechnology, fintech, and sustainable energy are now prime investment targets.

Significance of these Funds:

  • These funds not only provide essential capital for research, development, and market expansion but also help entrepreneurs rapidly scale their innovations and disrupt traditional industries.
  • At the same time, private equity has expanded its focus beyond traditional areas to include sectors such as healthcare, education, consumer goods, and infrastructure.
  • PE firms generally invest in established companies seeking growth opportunities or undergoing strategic transformations.
  • By injecting capital, enhancing operational efficiencies, and offering strategic guidance, PE firms play a crucial role in improving competitiveness, increasing market reach, and driving sustainable value creation.
  • Several key factors have contributed to the robust growth of VC and PE investments:

Advancements in Technology:

  • Advances in technologies like cloud computing, big data analytics, and blockchain have fundamentally transformed business models and accelerated cycles of innovation.
  • These breakthroughs have reduced entry barriers for startups and empowered established firms to thrive in a digital-centric economy, making them appealing targets for PE investments aimed at optimizing operations and boosting profitability.

Globalization and Market Reach:

  • Increasing interconnectedness has facilitated cross-border investments, enabling VC and PE firms to diversify their investment portfolios and access emerging markets with significant growth potential.
  • This global expansion not only expands investment opportunities but also introduces companies to new markets, customers, and strategic alliances, fueling scalability and growth.

Shift in Consumer Preferences:

  • Changing consumer preferences towards sustainability, digital solutions, and personalized experiences have driven demand for inventive products and services.
  • VC-backed startups are leading the charge in meeting these evolving demands, disrupting traditional sectors and creating fresh market opportunities.

Supportive Regulatory Environment:

  • Favorable regulatory frameworks and government policies aimed at promoting innovation, entrepreneurship, and capital formation have played a pivotal role in facilitating VC and PE investments.
  • These policies incentivize investors, reduce regulatory hurdles, and create an environment conducive to the success of startups and growth-stage enterprises.

Institutional Investor Engagement:

  • Increasing interest from institutional investors such as pension funds, sovereign wealth funds, and endowments has significantly bolstered VC and PE markets.
  • These investors seek portfolio diversification, higher returns, and exposure to innovative sectors, leading to substantial capital inflows into VC-backed startups and PE-funded ventures.


Despite the promising prospects offered by the surge in VC and PE activities, challenges remain. Market volatility, valuation pressures, regulatory complexities, and geopolitical uncertainties present risks that necessitate vigilant risk management strategies. Moreover, upholding ethical standards, practicing sustainable methodologies, and aligning with stakeholders are crucial for ensuring long-term success and value creation within the VC and PE ecosystem.

July 2024