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INDICES & REPORTS FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 Part 1

Global Gender Gap Report, 2020

Published by World Economic Forum (WEF)

KEY HIGHLIGHTS:

India: 112/153 (previous year rank: 108/149)

Countries assessed on 4 dimensions:
(1) Economic Participation and Opportunity,
(2) Educational Attainment,
(3) Health and Survival,
(4) Political Empowerment

Global Performance

  • Top performers – Iceland, Norway, and Finland
  • Worst performers – Yemen (153), Iraq (152), & Pakistan (151)
  • Time it will take to close the gender gap – narrowed to 99.5
    years (108 years in 2018).
  • Political empowerment – It has the largest gender disparity.
    Only 25% parliament seats are occupied by women & only 21%
    of ministers are women.

    India’s Performance
  • Slipped down 4 places since last ranking.
  • Ranks below countries like China (106), Sri Lanka (102), Nepal
    (101), Brazil (92), Indonesia (85) & Bangladesh (50).
  • India has closed 2/3rd of its overall gender gap.
  • India’s rank was the worst in the Health and Survival
    parameter (150th) which is computed in terms of life expectancy
    for women and sex ratio at birth.
  • Abnormally low sex ratios at birth (91 girls for every 100 boys).
  • Economic opportunity – The gap has worsened (149th). Women
    account for only 14% of leadership roles and 30% of
    professional and technical workers. Female estimated earned
    income is mere 1/5th of male income, among world’s lowest.
  • Political empowerment – India ranked 18th.
    women make up only 14% of the parliament (122 nd) & 23% of the cabinet (69th).
  • India is the only country where economic gender gap > political
    gender gap

Global Competitiveness Report & Index, 2019


INDEX / REPORTPUBLISHED BYINDIA’S RANKING & KEY HIGHLIGHTS
Global
Competitiveness
Report & Index, 2019
World Economic
Forum (WEF)
India rank: 68/141 (Slipped down 10 ranks, from 58/140 in 2018)
• It tracks data on 12 factors divided into 4 broad categories, Like
Enabling Environment – for eg. state of infrastructure, institutions, the macroeconomic stability of the country and its ability to adopt new technology.
Human Capital – includes health and level of skills in the economy.
State of Markets – labour, product, financial & overall market size.
Innovation Ecosystem – Business dynamism & innovation capability.
• Top 5 Countries: Singapore, USA, Hong Kong, Netherlands, & Switzerland
India’s performance
Within South Asia, it is the best performer.
Within BRICS, 2nd worst performer after Brazil. China is ranked
28th (the highest ranked among the BRICS).

Ease of Doing Business, 2020

INDEX / REPORTPUBLISHED BYINDIA’S RANKING & KEY HIGHLIGHTS
Ease of Doing
Business, 2020
World BankIndia Rank: 63/190 (India climbed 14 spots, from 77th position in 2018)
• Assesses on 10 areas: Starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency.
• Distance to frontier (DTF), a score that shows the gap of an economy to the global best practice.
• Top 3 Performers – New Zealand, Singapore and Hong Kong
Somalia was ranked the last (190)
India’s Performance
India recognized as one of the top 10 improvers for the 3rd year, consecutively.
Improved its rank in 7 out of 10 indicators.
4 areas of major progress – Resolving Insolvency (from 108th to 52nd), Dealing with Construction Permits (from 52nd to 27th),
Trading Across Borders (from 80th to 68th), and Starting a Business (from 137th to 136th).
Ranking deteriorated on 2 parameters – protecting minority investors(from 7th to 13th position) and getting credit (from 22nd
to 25th).

World Development Report, 2020 by World Bank


• Theme: “Trading for Development in Age of Global Value Chains”
• 2020 report examines whether there is still a path to development
through Global Value Chains (GVCs) and trade.
• Value Chain – It refers to the full life cycle of a product or process,
including material sourcing, production, consumption and disposal/
recycling processes.

Global Value Chain (GVC)

  1. A GVC breaks up the production process across countries.
  2. Firms specialize in a specific task & do not produce the whole
    product.
  3. Each stage adds value, and at least two stages are in different
    countries.
  4. Economic fundamentals drive countries’ participation in GVCs
    and national policies aid in enhancing participation &
    broadening benefits.

The Report concludes that GVCs can continue to boost growth,
create better jobs, and reduce poverty, provided that developing
countries undertake deeper reforms and industrial countries
pursue open, predictable policies.

Human Capital Index (HCI), 2019 by World Bank

India Rank: 115/157
• First HCI released as part of the World Development Report 2019.
• It has 3 components:

  1. Survival, as measured by under-5 mortality rates.
  2. Expected years of Quality-Adjusted School
  3. Health environment – Adult survival rates & Rate of stunting
    for children under 5.

India: 0.44 score. (Productivity lower than Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Bangladesh)
(*Note – HCI is different from HDI (Human Development Index)
which is published by UNDP)

World Bank's Human Capital Index | Legacy IAS

Global Economic Prospects Report, 2020 (Semi- annual report) BY World Bank


• Global economic growth is expected to rise to 2.5%
• The report predicts India’s growth rate at 5% in FY 2020 (2019-20).
• This is the lowest prediction since 2008-09 (3.1%) ie. in 11 years.
• Reasons – insufficient credit availability and subdued private
consumption.
• Growth in advanced economies is likely to slip to 1.4%
• Growth in the emerging markets and developing economies is expected to accelerate this year to 4.1%

Global Social Mobility Report, 2020 BY World Economic Forum (WEF)

India Rank: 76/82
• The index focusses on those policies, practices and institutions that
collectively determine the extent to which everyone in society has
a fair chance to fulfil their potential, regardless of their socioeconomic background.
Social mobility can be understood as moving ‘upward’ and
‘downward’, whereby people see their circumstances become
better or worse off than those of their parents or within their own
lifetimes.
Absolute upward social mobility refers to the ability for children
to experience a better life than their parents.

Assesses on 5 key dimensions of social mobility, over 10 pillars:

  1. Health
  2. Education (access, quality/equity, lifelong learning)
  3. Technology
  4. Work (opportunities, wages, conditions)
  5. Protection Institutions (social protection & inclusive institutions)

• Top 5 performers – Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Iceland
(All are Nordic nations).
• Increasing social mobility by 10% would benefit social cohesion and
boost the world’s economies by nearly 5% by 2030.
• Economies that stand to gain the most from increases in social
mobility are China, US, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Indonesia,
Brazil, the UK and France.
• It calls for a new financing model for social mobility: Improving tax
progressivity on personal income, policies that address wealth
concentration and broadly rebalancing the sources of taxation.

Global Risks Report, 2020 by World Economic Forum (WEF)


A “global risk” is defined as an uncertain event or condition that, if it
occurs, can cause significant negative impact for several countries or
industries within the next 10 years.

Top 5 global risks in terms of likelihood are —

  1. Extreme weather conditions (floods, storms).
  2. Climate action failure (Failure of climate-change mitigation &
    adaptation).
  3. Major natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic
    eruptions, geomagnetic storms etc.).
  4. Major biodiversity loss & ecosystem collapse (terrestrial/marine)
  5. Human-made environmental damage and disasters (oil spills,
    radioactive contamination).
INDEX / REPORTPUBLISHED BYKEY HIGHLIGHTS
Travel and Tourism
Competitiveness
Report & Index, 2019
World Economic
Forum (WEF)
India Rank: 34/140
• Theme: Travel and Tourism at a Tipping Point (Biennial report)
• Scores countries on 4 indicators —
(1) enabling environment; (2)
travel and tourism policy and enabling conditions; (3) infrastructure; (4) natural and cultural rankings.
• India’s performance – India had the greatest improvement (40th to 34th), over 2017, among the top 25% of all countries ranked.
Global Energy
Transition Index, 2019
World Economic
Forum (WEF)
India Rank: 76/115
• Top performer – Sweden
• The index benchmarks the countries’ energy systems based on an
“energy triangle” – (1) Energy security and access, (2) Economic development growth, & (3) Environmental sustainability
• India is 2nd in the BRICS group, after Brazil.
Global Environmental
Performance Index,
2018
World Economic
Forum (WEF)
India Rank: 177/180 (India slipped down from previous year)
• Developed by Yale University and Columbia University in collaboration with WEF and Joint Research Centre of European Commission.
• India ranked 4th worst country in curbing environmental pollution.
Inclusive
Development Index,
2018
World Economic
Forum (WEF)
India Rank: 62/74 (among Emerging economies)
• 3 Pillars of Index –
(1) Growth and Development, (2) Inclusion and Intergenerational Equity & (3) Sustainability
• Calculated separately for Advanced & Emerging economies
• India ranked below Pakistan (47), Sri Lanka (40) & Nepal (22)
• India 2nd last among G 20 economies.
Global Manufacturing
Index, 2018
World Economic
Forum (WEF)
India Rank: 30 (among Legacy group)
• 100 countries divided into 4 groups:
1. Leading (strong current base, high level of readiness for future)
2. High Potential (limited current base, high potential future)
3. Legacy (strong current base, at risk for future)
4. Nascent (limited current base, low level of readiness for future)
Logistics Performance
Index, 2018
World BankIndia Rank: 44 (slipped down from 35th rank)
• India Logistics costs – 13-14% of GDP vs 8% developed nations
Remittances Report,
2019
World Bank• India – World’s top recipient of remittances ($79 billion)
• Followed by China ($67 billion), Mexico ($36 billion), Philippines
($34 billion), and Egypt ($29 billion)
World Economic
Outlook, April 2020
International
Monetary Fund
(IMF)
• Covid-19 pandemic will shrink world output by 3% in 2020.
• It will grow by 5.8% in 2021, helped by policy support (assuming
Covid19 pandemic fades in 2
nd half of 2020).
• India is a projected to grow by 1.9% in 2020 (down from its Jan 2020
projection of 5.8%) and 7.4% in 2021.
Global Financial
Stability Report, 2019
International
Monetary Fund
(IMF)
Key Vulnerabilities in the Global Financial System:
• Rising corporate debt burdens
• Increasing holdings of riskier and more illiquid assets by institutional
investors
• Greater reliance on external borrowing by emerging market and
frontier economies
Social Institutions and
Gender Index (SIGI),
2019
OECD• SIGI is a cross-country measure of discrimination against women in
social institutions (formal and informal laws, social norms, and practices).
• Top 3 performers: Denmark, Sweden and France
• India is categorized in Medium level of discrimination (SIGI – 34%)

To be continued….

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