Martyr’s Day is observed every year on January 30th to commemorate the death of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the Indian nation.
Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, and since then, this day is celebrated as Martyr’s Day to honor his life, work and the principles that he stood for.
Mahatma Gandhi was a political and spiritual leader who fought for the independence of India from British rule. He is known for his philosophy of nonviolent resistance and his role in the Indian independence movement.
Gandhi’s non-violent resistance inspired people around the world to stand up for their rights and freedoms and inspired other leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela, to adopt similar methods in their own struggles.
Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, known as satyagraha, was based on the belief that people have a moral obligation to resist injustice and oppression peacefully. He believed that through nonviolent resistance, people could achieve their rights and bring about social change without resorting to violence.
Throughout his life, Gandhi led several campaigns, including the Salt March and the Quit India Movement, in an effort to win independence for India and to end discrimination and oppression. He was imprisoned several times for his actions, but he continued to lead the independence movement and inspired others to follow his nonviolent path.
On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu nationalist who disagreed with his philosophy of non-violence and his efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity. His death shocked the world and served as a reminder of the power of non-violent resistance in the face of violence and hatred.
In India, Martyr’s Day is observed with great solemnity and reverence. It is a day for people to reflect on Gandhi’s life, work and legacy and to rededicate themselves to the principles that he stood for. The Indian government and various organizations hold ceremonies and events to pay tribute to Gandhi and to promote his teachings.
In addition to being observed in India, Martyr’s Day is also recognized by people around the world who are inspired by Gandhi’s life and work.
Many organizations and individuals hold their own events and ceremonies to pay tribute to Gandhi and to promote the ideals that he stood for.
Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi
The contributions which Mahatma Gandhi gave to the world are as follows:
- A new spirit and technique – Satyagraha.
- The emphasis that the moral universe is one and that the morals of individuals, groups, and nations must be the same.
- His insistence that the means and the ends must be consistent.
- The fact that he held no ideals, he did not embody or was not in the process of embodying.
- A willingness to suffer and die for his principles. The greatest of these is his Satyagraha.
- He was the leader of many freedom movements across the country, and he advocated peace instead of violence.
|2 October, 1869||Birth at Porbunder in Gujarat (Sudamapuri, Kathiawad)|
|1876||Beginning of Education at Rajkot|
|1883||Married with Kasturba at Porbunder|
|4th September, 1888||Left for London to study Law|
|12 January, 1891||Passed the Law examination|
|10-11 June, 1891||Called to the British Bar and enrolled in the High Court|
|12 June, 1891||Set sail for home|
|6 July, 1891||In India, introduced to Raychandbhai (Whom Gandhiji regarded as his Guru)|
|16 November, 1891||Applied for enrollment in the Bombay High Court|
|24 May, 1892||Came to Bombay to start practice in the High Court as Barrister|
|April, 1893||Representing a Porbunder firm set sail for South Africa|
|June, 1893||At Pietermaritzberg station Gandhiji was ordered to go into the van compartment of the train although he held a first class ticket. On his refusal, a constable was brought and he was forcibly ejected, his bundles pitched out after him. He was left to shiver in the waiting room all night.|
|22 May, 1894||Proposed an Organisation to watch the interest of Indians and to oppose colour bar against them in South Africa.|
|22 August, 1894||Founded Natal Indian Congress to fight colour prejudice|
|3 September, 1894||Admitted to Natal Supreme Court despite opposition by Natal Law Society|
|17 October, 1899||Out break of Boer War and Gandhiji joined Ambulance Corps|
|18 October, 1899||Started for India assuring to return to South Africa in his service were to be needed|
|27 December, 1901||Moved a resolution on South Africa at Calcutta Congress session.|
|20 November, 1902||At the growing pressure from Indians in South Africa, returned to South Africa|
|1903||Founded Transvaal British India Association|
|1 October, 1904||Took over entire management responsibility of ‘Indian Opinion’|
|Nov.-Dec., 1904||Founded Phoenix settlement|
|September, 1906||Started Passive Resistance Movement|
|13-22November, 1909||Wrote ‘Hind Swaraj’ in Gujarati on board S.S.Kildonan Castle on the way to South Africa from London|
|9 January, 1915||Returned to India|
|25 May, 1915||Founded Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, Ahemadabad|
|April, 1917||Champaran Satyagraha|
|1918||Ahemadabad mill workers & Kheda Peasant Satyagraha|
|13 April, 1919||Massacre at mass meeting at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Gandhiji implored people to be calm|
|8 October, 1919||First issue of ‘Young India’ under Gandhiji’s Editorship|
|1920-21||Khilafat and non-Co-operation Movement|
|5 February, 1922||Chauri Chaura incident and withdrawal of Non Co-operation Movement|
|10 March, 1922||Arrested. On 21 March sent to Yervada Jail. Remained in jail till March 1924.|
|17 September, 1924||Started 21 days fast for Hindu-Muslim unity|
|December, 1924||Presided over the Belgaum Congress|
|December, 1928||Attended Calcutta Congress where a draft Constitution of India was adopted on 31 December, 1928|
|December, 1929||Gandhiji’s resolution on Complete Independence was adopted at open session of Lahore Congress along with immediate boycott of legislatures.|
|26 January, 1930||Pledge of Independence day taken all over India|
|19 February, 1930||All India Congress Committee adopted Civil Disobedience programme|
|12 March, 1930||At 6.30 a.m. with 78 Ashramaties Gandhiji started his famous Dandi March to break the Salt Law|
|4 May, 1930||Arrested and taken to Yervada jail|
|26 January, 1931||Released from Jail|
|5 March, 1931||Gandhi-Irwin Pact was announced|
|29 March, 1931||Left for London to attend Round Table Conference|
|5 December, 1931||Decided to restart Non Co-operation Movement|
|4 January, 1932||Started fast against separate electorate for the Harijans|
|8 May, 1933||Started 21 days fast for the improvement of Harijan’s condition and was released at 6 p.m. from jail|
|31 July, 1933||Individual Civil Disobedience started|
|1 August, 1933||Arrested and remained in Jail till 23 Aug.1933|
|17 September, 1934||Stated “I am going to resign from the Congress”|
|28 October, 1934||Declared his intention to retire from Congress|
|1936||Founded Sevagram Ashram at Wardha|
|1937||Wardha Scheme of Education|
|May & Oct-Nov, 1938||North West Frontier tours|
|3 March, 1939||Started fast unto death at Rajkot and on settlement of the issue ended fast on 7 March, 1939|
|15 October, 1940||Started Anti-war individual Satyagraha with Vinoba as the first Satyagrahi|
|15 January, 1942||‘My political successor is Jawaharlal’ Gandhiji said.|
|5 March, 1942||Cripps arrives|
|30 March, 1942||The idea of ‘Quit India’ burst upon Gandhiji|
|8 March, 1942||Addressed All India Congress Committee of Bombay and Quit India resolution was passed.|
|9 August, 1942||Arrested and taken to Agakhan Palace-Jail|
|15 August, 1942||Lighted the pyre of Mahadev Desai, his secretary who died in Jail|
|10 February, 1943||Started fast in Agakhan Palace-Jail|
|3 March, 1943||Ended fast-in-Jail|
|22 February, 1944||At 7.35 p.m. Kasturba died. The saree woven from yarn spun by Gandhiji was wrapped round her body|
|6 May, 1944||Released from Jail|
|March, 1945||Cabinet Mission|
|Jan-July, 1945||Simla Conference|
|1946||Cabinet plan accepted|
|10 October, 1946||In Naokhali and other districts in East Bengal inhuman atrocities started|
|6 November, 1946||Left Calcutta for Naokhali by a special train|
|Jan-Dec., 1947||Toured troubled areas of Bengal, Bihar & Delhi|
|15 August, 1947||At Calcutta, fasted as country was cut into two pieces|
|13 January, 1948||Started fast in Delhi against communal riots|
|16 January, 1948||‘I do not with to live if peace is not established in India and Pakistan’|
|18 January, 1948||Broke fast by taking orange juice from Maulana Azad|
|20 January, 1948||A bomb exploded in the midst of his prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi.|
|27 January, 1948||Wrote ‘Congress Position’; suggesting that Congress should cease as political body and should devote to people’s service. Also attended annual celebration at Bakhtiar Chisti’s Dargah.|
|30 January, 1948||The day of martyrdom, was shot dead while on his way to evening prayer ground at Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti) by the miscreant Nathuram Vinayak Godse.|
Martyr’s Day is a day to remember the life and work of Mahatma Gandhi and to rededicate ourselves to the principles of non-violence, justice, and equality that he stood for.
Through his life and work, Gandhi showed the world the power of nonviolent resistance and inspired people around the world to stand up for their rights and to bring about positive change in their communities. Let us continue to honor his legacy and to work towards a world that is more just, peaceful, and equal for all.
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