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Martyr’s Day 2023- 75th Death Anniversary Of Mahatma Gandhi

Martyr’s Day is observed every year on January 30th to commemorate the death of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the Indian nation.

Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, and since then, this day is celebrated as Martyr’s Day to honor his life, work and the principles that he stood for.

Mahatma Gandhi was a political and spiritual leader who fought for the independence of India from British rule. He is known for his philosophy of nonviolent resistance and his role in the Indian independence movement.


Gandhi’s non-violent resistance inspired people around the world to stand up for their rights and freedoms and inspired other leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela, to adopt similar methods in their own struggles.


Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, known as satyagraha, was based on the belief that people have a moral obligation to resist injustice and oppression peacefully. He believed that through nonviolent resistance, people could achieve their rights and bring about social change without resorting to violence.


Throughout his life, Gandhi led several campaigns, including the Salt March and the Quit India Movement, in an effort to win independence for India and to end discrimination and oppression. He was imprisoned several times for his actions, but he continued to lead the independence movement and inspired others to follow his nonviolent path.


On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu nationalist who disagreed with his philosophy of non-violence and his efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity. His death shocked the world and served as a reminder of the power of non-violent resistance in the face of violence and hatred.


In India, Martyr’s Day is observed with great solemnity and reverence. It is a day for people to reflect on Gandhi’s life, work and legacy and to rededicate themselves to the principles that he stood for. The Indian government and various organizations hold ceremonies and events to pay tribute to Gandhi and to promote his teachings.


In addition to being observed in India, Martyr’s Day is also recognized by people around the world who are inspired by Gandhi’s life and work.


Many organizations and individuals hold their own events and ceremonies to pay tribute to Gandhi and to promote the ideals that he stood for.


Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi

The contributions which Mahatma Gandhi gave to the world are as follows:

  • A new spirit and technique – Satyagraha. 
  • The emphasis that the moral universe is one and that the morals of individuals, groups, and nations must be the same.
  • His insistence that the means and the ends must be consistent. 
  • The fact that he held no ideals, he did not embody or was not in the process of embodying. 
  • A  willingness to suffer and die for his principles.  The greatest of these is his  Satyagraha.
  • He was the leader of many freedom movements across the country, and he advocated peace instead of violence. 
2 October, 1869Birth at Porbunder in Gujarat (Sudamapuri, Kathiawad)
1876Beginning of Education at Rajkot
1883Married with Kasturba at Porbunder
4th September, 1888Left for London to study Law
12 January, 1891Passed the Law examination
10-11 June, 1891Called to the British Bar and enrolled in the High Court
12 June, 1891Set sail for home
6 July, 1891In India, introduced to Raychandbhai (Whom Gandhiji regarded as his Guru)
16 November, 1891Applied for enrollment in the Bombay High Court
24 May, 1892Came to Bombay to start practice in the High Court as Barrister
April, 1893Representing a Porbunder firm set sail for South Africa
June, 1893At Pietermaritzberg station Gandhiji was ordered to go into the van compartment of the train although he held a first class ticket. On his refusal, a constable was brought and he was forcibly ejected, his bundles pitched out after him. He was left to shiver in the waiting room all night.
22 May, 1894Proposed an Organisation to watch the interest of Indians and to oppose colour bar against them in South Africa.
22 August, 1894Founded Natal Indian Congress to fight colour prejudice
3 September, 1894Admitted to Natal Supreme Court despite opposition by Natal Law Society
17 October, 1899Out break of Boer War and Gandhiji joined Ambulance Corps
18 October, 1899Started for India assuring to return to South Africa in his service were to be needed
27 December, 1901Moved a resolution on South Africa at Calcutta Congress session.
20 November, 1902At the growing pressure from Indians in South Africa, returned to South Africa
1903Founded Transvaal British India Association
1 October, 1904Took over entire management responsibility of ‘Indian Opinion’
Nov.-Dec., 1904Founded Phoenix settlement
September, 1906Started Passive Resistance Movement
13-22November, 1909Wrote ‘Hind Swaraj’ in Gujarati on board S.S.Kildonan Castle on the way to South Africa from London
9 January, 1915Returned to India
25 May, 1915Founded Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, Ahemadabad
April, 1917Champaran Satyagraha
1918Ahemadabad mill workers & Kheda Peasant Satyagraha
13 April, 1919Massacre at mass meeting at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Gandhiji implored people to be calm
8 October, 1919First issue of ‘Young India’ under Gandhiji’s Editorship
1920-21Khilafat and non-Co-operation Movement
5 February, 1922Chauri Chaura incident and withdrawal of Non Co-operation Movement
10 March, 1922Arrested. On 21 March sent to Yervada Jail. Remained in jail till March 1924.
17 September, 1924Started 21 days fast for Hindu-Muslim unity
December, 1924Presided over the Belgaum Congress
December, 1928Attended Calcutta Congress where a draft Constitution of India was adopted on 31 December, 1928
December, 1929Gandhiji’s resolution on Complete Independence was adopted at open session of Lahore Congress along with immediate boycott of legislatures.
26 January, 1930Pledge of Independence day taken all over India
19 February, 1930All India Congress Committee adopted Civil Disobedience programme
12 March, 1930At 6.30 a.m. with 78 Ashramaties Gandhiji started his famous Dandi March to break the Salt Law
4 May, 1930Arrested and taken to Yervada jail
26 January, 1931Released from Jail
5 March, 1931Gandhi-Irwin Pact was announced
29 March, 1931Left for London to attend Round Table Conference
5 December, 1931Decided to restart Non Co-operation Movement
4 January, 1932Started fast against separate electorate for the Harijans
8 May, 1933Started 21 days fast for the improvement of Harijan’s condition and was released at 6 p.m. from jail
31 July, 1933Individual Civil Disobedience started
1 August, 1933Arrested and remained in Jail till 23 Aug.1933
17 September, 1934Stated “I am going to resign from the Congress”
28 October, 1934Declared his intention to retire from Congress
1936Founded Sevagram Ashram at Wardha
1937Wardha Scheme of Education
May & Oct-Nov, 1938North West Frontier tours
3 March, 1939Started fast unto death at Rajkot and on settlement of the issue ended fast on 7 March, 1939
15 October, 1940Started Anti-war individual Satyagraha with Vinoba as the first Satyagrahi
15 January, 1942‘My political successor is Jawaharlal’ Gandhiji said.
5 March, 1942Cripps arrives
30 March, 1942The idea of ‘Quit India’ burst upon Gandhiji
8 March, 1942Addressed All India Congress Committee of Bombay and Quit India resolution was passed.
9 August, 1942Arrested and taken to Agakhan Palace-Jail
15 August, 1942Lighted the pyre of Mahadev Desai, his secretary who died in Jail
10 February, 1943Started fast in Agakhan Palace-Jail
3 March, 1943Ended fast-in-Jail
22 February, 1944At 7.35 p.m. Kasturba died. The saree woven from yarn spun by Gandhiji was wrapped round her body
6 May, 1944Released from Jail
March, 1945Cabinet Mission
Jan-July, 1945Simla Conference
1946Cabinet plan accepted
10 October, 1946In Naokhali and other districts in East Bengal inhuman atrocities started
6 November, 1946Left Calcutta for Naokhali by a special train
Jan-Dec., 1947Toured troubled areas of Bengal, Bihar & Delhi
15 August, 1947At Calcutta, fasted as country was cut into two pieces
13 January, 1948Started fast in Delhi against communal riots
16 January, 1948‘I do not with to live if peace is not established in India and Pakistan’
18 January, 1948Broke fast by taking orange juice from Maulana Azad
20 January, 1948A bomb exploded in the midst of his prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi.
27 January, 1948Wrote ‘Congress Position’; suggesting that Congress should cease as political body and should devote to people’s service. Also attended annual celebration at Bakhtiar Chisti’s Dargah.
30 January, 1948The day of martyrdom, was shot dead while on his way to evening prayer ground at Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti) by the miscreant Nathuram Vinayak Godse.

Martyr’s Day is a day to remember the life and work of Mahatma Gandhi and to rededicate ourselves to the principles of non-violence, justice, and equality that he stood for.


Through his life and work, Gandhi showed the world the power of nonviolent resistance and inspired people around the world to stand up for their rights and to bring about positive change in their communities. Let us continue to honor his legacy and to work towards a world that is more just, peaceful, and equal for all.

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December 2023