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NMC Guidelines Restrict New Medical Colleges in High-Density States


Recently, the National Medical Commission (NMC) has issued guidelines putting a hold on new medical colleges and expansion of existing colleges in states with more than 100 medical education seats per million population.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Medical College Distribution
  2. NMC’s Guideline Implementation
  3. About National Medical Commission (NMC)

Medical College Distribution

High-Density States:
  • Over 100 medical education seats per million population in at least 13 states and Union Territories in India.
  • Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra have the highest number of medical college seats.
Severe Shortages in Some States:
  • Meghalaya, Bihar, and Jharkhand face significant shortages, with deficits exceeding 75%.
  • Meghalaya has only 50 medical college seats for a population of 33.5 lakh.
  • Bihar and Jharkhand, with populations of 12.7 crore and 3.9 crore, have 2,565 and 980 medical college seats, respectively.
  • Uttar Pradesh, despite being the most populous state, has a 61% deficit.

NMC’s Guideline Implementation

Regulations Issued in August 2023:
  • NMC introduced guidelines based on population-to-seats ratios for medical colleges.
  • States exceeding 100 medical education seats per million population are prohibited from expanding their medical education capacity.
  • Aimed at reducing regional disparities and enhancing the quality of medical education.
Effective from 2024-25 Academic Session:
  • NMC’s regulations will be in effect for new medical colleges and seat expansions starting from the 2024-25 academic session.
  • No mandate for states with excess seats to close down colleges or reduce existing seats.

About National Medical Commission (NMC):

  • The National Medical Commission (NMC) is a regulatory body responsible for overseeing medical education and profession in India.
  • The NMC was established in 2019 under the National Medical Commission Act, replacing the erstwhile Medical Council of India (MCI).


  • The NMC consists of a Chairperson, members, and ex-officio members appointed by the Central Government.
  • The Chairperson and members include eminent medical professionals, academicians, and experts from various fields related to medical education and practice.

Autonomous Boards:

  • The NMC comprises autonomous boards responsible for specific areas such as undergraduate education, postgraduate education, medical assessment and rating, ethics and medical registration, and continuing professional development.
Reforms and Objectives:
  • The NMC was established to bring about significant reforms in the medical education sector, promote transparency, improve the quality of education, and ensure the availability of competent medical professionals.
  • It aims to address challenges in medical education, bridge gaps, and align education with evolving healthcare needs.

Functions and Responsibilities:

  • Regulating Medical Education: The NMC sets standards, guidelines, and regulations for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in India.
  • Assessing Medical Institutions: It conducts inspections and assessments of medical colleges and institutions to ensure compliance with prescribed standards.
  • Granting Recognition: The NMC grants recognition to medical qualifications and degrees obtained from Indian and foreign institutions.
  • Promoting Ethical Practices: It establishes and enforces ethical standards and guidelines for medical professionals.
  • Conducting Common Entrance Examinations: The NMC conducts a common entrance examination called the National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test (NEET) for admission to undergraduate medical courses in India.
  • Oversight and Quality Assurance: The NMC monitors the quality of medical education, training, and research to maintain high standards in the healthcare sector.

-Source: The Hindu

December 2023