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Focus: GS Paper 2: Health, Government Policies & Interventions, Welfare Schemes, Issues Related to Women

Why in news?

As per recently released National Family Health Survey-V data, 52.2 percent pregnant women in the age group 15-49 years are estimated to be anaemic in the country. 

About Anaemia:

  • Anaemia occurs when there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the  body’s organs.
  • In its severe form, it is associated with fatigue, weakness, dizziness and drowsiness. Pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable.
  • A diet which does not contain enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 is a common cause of anaemia.
  • Some other conditions that may lead to anaemia include pregnancy, heavy periods, blood disorders or cancer, inherited disorders and infectious diseases.

Under the National Health Mission (NHM), the steps taken to tackle anaemia are:

  • Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB): Launched by the Government of India in 2018 with the target to reduce anaemia in women, children and adolescents in a life cycle approach. 
  • The interventions for pregnant women in tackling anemia cases are as follows
  • Prophylactic Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation including Adolescent girls (10-19 years)
  • Intensified year-round Behaviour Change Communication (BCC)
  • Training and orientation of Medical Officers and front line-workers on newer Maternal Health and Anaemia Mukt Bharat guidelines

Other Initiatives:

  • The health management information system & Mother Child tracking system are being implemented for reporting and tracking the cases of anaemic and severely anaemic pregnant women.
  • Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA): It has been launched to focus on conducting a special ANC check up on 9th of every month with the help of Medical officers/ OBGYN to detect and treat cases of anaemia.
  • Addressing non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis
  • Providing incentives to the ANM for identification and follow-up of pregnant women with severe anaemia in high priority districts (HPDs)


Focus:   GS Paper – 2: Poverty, Welfare Schemes, E-Governance. GS Paper – 3: Employment

Why in News?

Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) Rajeev Chandrasekhar on Tuesday presented e-cart licenses to 21 street food vendors based in areas under the jurisdiction of the East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC).

About the Program to Upskill Street Food Vendors:

  • In its pilot phase with the East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC), Skill India aims at upskilling 2,500 vendors, aged between 23 to 55 years.
  • The project will be implemented by the Tourism and Hospitality Sector Skill Council (THSSC) and training partners of NSDC.
  • The initiative will be implemented under the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) component of Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) 3.0.
  • It provides for training, certification and assessment cost along with Rs. 500/- incentive, 3 years and Rs. 2 lakh accidental insurance to the candidates.

Objectives of the program:

  • Provide relevant skills to the Street Food Vendors
  • Better services to consumers
  • More opportunities to vendors for revenue generation
  • Awareness on regulations and stipulated rules, in return providing better services to the local bodies.

About Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY):

  • It is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) implemented by the National Skill Development Corporation.
  • The objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 3.0 (2020-21):

  • The focus of PMKVY 3.0 (2020-21) has been shifted from supply-based approach to demand-based approach.
  • In the wake of disruption caused by COVID-19 and resultant impact on livelihoods, the scheme will give the major focus on upskilling/reskilling with a focus on future skills courses to increase productivity of existing workforce and provide online/digital mode of training for wider coverage.
  • Individuals with prior learning experience or skills are assessed and certified under the RPL component of the scheme.
  • Training centers also impart training in soft skills, entrepreneurship, financial and digital literacy. 

Other Initiatives:

Prime Minister Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi):

  • It is a central sector scheme launched in June 2020.
  • It aims to provide micro-credit facilities to help street vendors to grow their business which was severely hit and are still struggling due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • It is a special micro-credit facility plan to provide affordable loan of up to ₹10,000 to more than 50 lakh street vendors, who had their businesses operational on or before 24 March 2020.
  • Small Industries Development Bank of India is the technical partner for implementation of this scheme.


Focus: GS Paper – 2 & GS Paper – 3: Government Policies & Interventions, Skill Development, Employment

Why in News?

Drinking water supply schemes worth Rs 1,816 Crore were approved for Rajasthan in the State-level Scheme Sanctioning Committee (SLSSC) meeting held on 29th November, 2021.

About Jal Jeevan Mission:

  • The mission is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. It was launched in 2019.
  • It is under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.


  • Development of reliable drinking water sources and/ or augmentation of existing sources to provide long-term sustainability of water supply system
  • Drinking water supply system, gray water treatment and its reuse.
  • Water quality monitoring and testing as well as sustainable agriculture.
  • Treatment plants and distribution network to cater to every rural household
  • Technological interventions for removal of contaminants where water quality is an issue


  • The Mission is based on a community approach to water and includes extensive Information, Education and Communication as a key component of the mission.
  • JJM looks to create a Jan Andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.


Focus: GS Paper 3: Agricultural Resources, Food Security, GS Paper 2: Government Policies & Interventions

Why in News?

During  the year 2020-21, India imported 133.5 lakh tonnes of edible oil, out of which the share of palm oil was around 56 %. 

About National Edible Oil Mission-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP):

The NMEO-OP proposes to extend cultivation of oil palm, considered a top oil crop, to an additional 6.5 lakh hectare so that the crude palm oil (CPO) production touches 11.20 lakh tonnes by the 2025-26 financial year.


To augment the availability of edible oil in the country by harnessing area expansion, increasing crude palm oil production with the aim to reduce the import burden.


  • Focus on increasing area and productivity of oilseeds and Oil Palm
  • Price Assurance to Oil Palm farmers for Fresh Fruit Bunches
  • Assistance to seed gardens specially for North-East and Andaman regions
  • Under the scheme, oil palm farmers will be provided financial assistance and will get remuneration under a price and viability formula.
  • Emphasis has been given to promote micro irrigation and water conservation in oil palm for efficient water management and judicious use of water.

About Palm Oil:

  • It is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palms.
  • The oil is used in food manufacturing, in beauty products, and as biofuel.
  • Palm oil is currently the world’s most consumed vegetable oil.
  • Globally, palm oil supplies 40% of the world’s vegetable oil demand on just under 6% of the land used to produce all vegetable oils.


Focus: GS Paper – 1: Distribution of Key Natural Resources, Mineral & Energy Resources

Why in News?

Scientists have found a clue to the mystery behind the high abundance of Lithium in some evolved stars. The element is found in trace amounts on Earth and a key component of rechargeable batteries.

Key Points:

  • For more than four decades, Astronomers have known that a class of stars have an anomalous amount of Lithium on their surface.
  • The reason and processes behind the high abundance of Lithium in about one percent red giants has remained a puzzle since the models of how stars evolve predict the Lithium must have been destroyed in the hot plasma of the star.


Scientists for the first time confirmed that all the lithium-rich stars are burning helium in their core.

About Lithium:

  • It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.
  • It is highly reactive and flammable, and must be stored in mineral oil.
  • Under ordinary conditions, lithium is the least dense of the solid elements.


  • The most important use of lithium is in rechargeable batteries for mobile phones, laptops, digital cameras and electric vehicles.
  • Lithium metal is made into alloys with aluminium and magnesium, improving their strength and making them lighter. They are used in aircraft, bicycle frames and high-speed trains.

Lithium reserves:

  • India currently imports all its lithium needs.
  • China is a major source of lithium-ion energy storage products being imported into the country.
  • A recent survey shows the presence of 1,600 tonnes of lithium resources in the igneous rocks of the Marlagalla-Allapatna region of Karnataka’s Mandya district.
  • Other sites include major mica belts in Rajasthan, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh.

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June 2024