- FDI in Commercial Coal Mining
- Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy 2020
- eVIN: Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network
Focus: GS-III Indian Economy, Industry and Infrastructure
Why in news?
With reference to the ongoing auction process of coal mines for commercial coal mining in India: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Policy, 2017 was amended in 2019 to permit 100% FDI under automatic route in coal mining activities.
- The Auctioning process for coal mines for commercial mining was launched by the Nominated Authority, Ministry of Coal, Government of India.
- The Amendment permitting 100% FDI under automatic route in coal mining included changes to associated processing infrastructure, for sale of coal, subject to the provisions of Coal Mines (Special Provisions) Act, 2015 and the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 as amended from time to time and other relevant Acts on the subject.
- The 100% FDI is subject to the recent government order that entities of countries sharing border with India can invest only under the Government route, with Government scrutiny and approval.
Restriction on FDI: Govt. Approval Mandatory for Neighbours
- A non-resident entity can invest in India, subject to the FDI Policy except in those sectors/activities which are prohibited.
- However, an entity of a country, which shares land border with India or where the beneficial owner of an investment into India is situated in or is a citizen of any such country, can invest only under the Government route.
- Pakistani investors face further restrictions in requiring government approval for FDI in defence, space and atomic energy sectors as well.
- A transfer of ownership of any existing or future FDI in an Indian entity to those in the restricted countries would also need government approval.
- Investors from countries not covered by the new policy only have to inform the RBI after a transaction
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
- It is an investment from a party in one country into a business or corporation in another country with the intention of establishing a lasting interest.
- Lasting interest differentiates FDI from foreign portfolio investments, where investors passively hold securities from a foreign country.
- Foreign direct investment can be made by expanding one’s business into a foreign country or by becoming the owner of a company in another country.
Focus: GS-III Internal Security Challenges
Why in news?
Ministry of Defence (MoD) has formulated a draft Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy 2020 (DPEPP 2020).
Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy 2020 (DPEPP 2020)
The DPEPP 2020 is envisaged as overarching guiding document of MoD to provide a focused, structured and significant thrust to defence production capabilities of the country for self-reliance and exports.
Regarding Domestic Production and Defence Exports
- The share of domestic procurement in overall defence procurement is about 60% now, and in order to enhance procurement from domestic industry, it is incumbent that procurement is doubled to RS. 1.4 Lakh crores by 2025 – according to DPEPP 2020’s aims.
- The policy says that Defence Attachés have been mandated and are supported to promote export of indigenous defence equipment abroad, with the efforts in this direction supplemented by selected Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSU).
- Subject to strategic considerations, domestically manufactured defence products will also be promoted through Government to Government agreements and Lines of Credit/Funding.
- In addition, with the aim to move away from licensed production to design, develop and produce indigenously and own the design rights and Intellectual Property (IP) of the systems projected in Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP) of the Services a Technology Assessment Cell (TAC) would be created.
Aims / Objectives of the DPEPP 2020 Policy
- To achieve a turnover of Rs 1.75 Lakh Crores, including export of Rs 35 Thousand Crores in Aerospace and Defence goods and services by 2025.
- To develop a dynamic, robust and competitive Defence industry, including Aerospace and Naval Shipbuilding industry to cater to the needs of Armed forces with quality products.
- To reduce dependence on imports and take forward “Make in India” initiatives through domestic design and development.
- To promote export of defence products and become part of the global defence value chains.
- To create an environment that encourages R&D, rewards innovation, creates Indian IP ownership and promotes a robust and self-reliant defence industry.
The policy has identified the opportunities in the aerospace industry in the following segments:
- Aircraft build work,
- Aircraft Maintenance,
- Repair and Overhaul (MRO),
- Helicopters, engine manufacturing and MRO work,
- Line replaceable units,
- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and upgrades and retrofits.
Focus: GS-III Science and Technology
Why in news?
The Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN) is being implemented to ensure essential immunization services during the COVID pandemic.
eVIN- Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network
- eVIN is an innovative technological solution aimed at strengthening immunization supply chain systems across the country.
- It is being implemented under National Health Mission (NHM) by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- eVIN aims to provide real-time information on vaccine stocks and flows, and storage temperatures across all cold chain points in the country.
- IT been used with the requisite customization during the COVID pandemic for ensuring continuation of the essential immunization services and protecting our children and pregnant mothers against vaccine preventable diseases.
- eVIN combines state-of-the-art technology, a strong IT infrastructure and trained human resource to enable real time monitoring of stock and storage temperature of the vaccines kept in multiple locations across the country.
- It has helped create a big data architecture that generates actionable analytics encouraging data-driven decision-making and consumption based planning that helps in maintaining optimum stocks of vaccines leading to cost savings.
- While instances of stock-outs have reduced by 80%, the time taken to replenish stocks has also decreased by more than half, on an average, it has ensured that every child who reaches the immunization session site is immunized, and not turned back due to unavailability of vaccines.