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PIB 6th January 2021


  1. E-certificate under PAT Cycle II
  2. Longitudinal Ageing Study of India (LASI) Wave-1, India Report
  3. The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)
  4. Avian Influenza
  5. National Infrastructure Pipeline
  6. International Solar Alliance (ISA)


Focus: GS 3;Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Why in News?

Ministry of Power notifies Norms and Standards for trading of E-certificate under PAT Cycle II

About PAT Scheme

  • The Perform, Achieve, Trade (PAT) scheme was established by National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency as a part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) launched in 2012.
  • In 2012, the Government had set targets to save energy in eight energy intensive sectors, under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
  • Those eight Energy Intensive Sectors included are Chlor-alkali, Pulp & Paper, Textile, Aluminum, Thermal Power plants, Fertilizer, Iron & Steel and Cement.
  • PAT scheme is a regulatory instrument to reduce specific energy consumption in energy intensive industries, with an associated market based mechanism to enhance the cost effectiveness through certification of excess energy saving which can be traded.
  • It is regulatory instrument to reduce specific energy consumption in energy intensive industries, with an associated market based mechanism to enhance the cost effectiveness through certification of excess energy saving which can be traded.
  • The first cycle of the PAT Scheme (2012-2015) managed to reduce the energy consumption of more than 400 energy-intensive enterprises (known as Designated Consumers -DCs).
  • The PAT cycle II  from 2016 to 2018-19 and the PAT cycle III from 2017-2020.
About ESCerts under PAT Scheme
  • The trading of energy saving certificates (ESCerts) is central to the PAT programme and serves as an incentive to reach or surpass the mandatory targets. 
  • The ESCerts, equivalent to 1 tonne of oil equivalent (toe) of energy savings, are given based on quantified energy savings verified by an accredited energy auditor.
  • The ESCerts are awarded after a DC surpasses its target and can then be sold to another DC that has failed to achieve its target, the price for which is determined through market supply and demand.
  •  The ESCerts can also be banked for next PAT cycles of the respective DC to contribute towards meeting future targets as the PAT programme expands.
  • The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission acts as the market regulator by defining the regulatory framework for trading of the ESCerts, while the Power System Operation Corporation is responsible for the centralized ESCert registry.
  • The Bureau of Energy Efficiency is the administrator and developed a platform to manage the ESCert trading process.
  • Starting from April 2017, the Indian Energy Exchange and the Power Exchange of India will manage ESCert trading.
About Iniatives Planned Under  National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE)
  • NMEEE includes four specific energy efficiency initiatives under its umbrella. 
  • These enhanced energy efficiency measures are aimed at facilitating energy intensive industries (industries that consume large quantities of energy in production process) to reduce their energy footprint and catalyze investments in the energy efficiency sector.
  • The four specific energy efficiency initiatives are as follows;-
  1. Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT)
  2. Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE)
  3. Energy Efficiency Financing Platform (EEFP)
  4. Framework for Energy Efficiency Economic Development (FEEED)
Assigning energy' reduction targets to 
large energy intensive industries and 
distributing Energy/ Saving Certificates 
(ESCerts) on achiving the targets. These 
ESCertscan be traded. 
Promoting adoption of energy efficient 
equipments and appliances through 
innovative business models 
National Mission for 
Enhanced Energy Efficiency 
Promoting energy efficiency initiatives Increasing the confidence of financial 
by hedgingagainst investment risks 
institutions and investors to support 
energy efficiency initiatives
About Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
  • BEE is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power, Government of India.
  • It assists in developing policies and strategies on energy conservation and efficiency with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy.
  • BEE coordinates with designated consumers, designated agencies of the states, and other related organization to identify and utilize the existing resources and infrastructure, in performing the functions assigned to it under the Energy Conservation Act.


Focus: GS 2;Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Why in News?

Dr.Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister for Health & Family Welfare released INDIA REPORT on Longitudinal Ageing Study of India (LASI) Wave-1 today on the virtual platform.

About Longitudinal Ageing Study of India (LSAI) Wave-1, India Report

  • LASI is a full scale national survey of scientific investigation of the health, economic, and social determinants and consequences of population ageing in India.
  • The National Programme for Health Care of Elderly, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has undertaken the Longitudinal Ageing Study of India, through International Institute for Population Sciences, (IIPS), Mumbai in collaboration with Harvard School of Public Health, University of Southern California, USA, Dte.GHS, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and National Institute on Ageing.
  • The LASI, Wave 1 covered from all States and Union Territories (UTs) of India (excluding Sikkim).
  • It is India’s first and the world’s largest ever survey that provides a longitudinal database for designing policies and programmes for the older population in the broad domains of social, health, and economic well-being.
  • The evidence from LASI will be used to further strengthen and broaden the scope of National Programme for Health Care of the Elderly and also help in establishing a range of preventive and health care programmes for older population and most vulnerable among them.
  • In 2011 census, the 60+ population accounted for 8.6% of India’s population, accounting for 103 million elderly people.
  • Growing at around 3% annually, the number of elderly age population will rise to 319 million in 2050.
  • This report will provide base for national and state level programmes and policies for elderly population.
  • A unique feature of LASI is the coverage of comprehensive biomarkers.
  • No other survey in India collects detailed data on health and biomarkers together with information on family and social network, income, assets, and consumption.
  • The ministry ensure that the elderly are provided with the best medical care, India already has one of the ambitious programme of the world, Ayushman Bharat Yojana which focuses on expansion of the healthcare facilities.


Focus: GS 2;Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Why in News?

The Standing Committee of National Board of Wildlife(SC-NBWL) in its 60th meeting held on 05th January has approved the advisory for management of Human-Wildlife Conflict(HWC) in the country.

The advisory makes important prescriptions for the States/ Union Territories for dealing with Human-Wildlife conflict situations and seeks expedited inter-departmental coordinated and effective actions.

About National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)

  • The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is the apex body in India for all wildlife-related matters.
  • The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is constituted in 2003 by the Central Government under Section 5 A of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (WLPA). 
  • It replaced the Indian Board for Wildlife, which was formed in 1952 as an advisory board.
  • It is primarily responsible for the promotion of wildlife conservation and the development of wildlife and forests.
  • The board is advisory in nature and advises the Central Government on framing policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in the country.
  • It approves projects (including government projects) in and around the protected areas (national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc.)
Composition of NBWL
  • The Prime Minister of the country is the ex officio chairperson of the NBWL.
  • The Minister of Environment, Forests and Climate Change is the Vice-Chairperson of the Board.
  • The NBWL comprises 47 members counting the chairperson. 
  • As per the WLPA, every time a new government is formed, a new NBWL has to be constituted with the Prime Minister as the chairperson.
Functions of NBWL
  • The functions of the NBWL are as follows.
    1. Promotion and development of wildlife and its conservation.
    2. Advise the government on matters relating to wildlife conservation and preservation.
    3. Giving or reserving clearances to projects in and around national parks and other protected areas.
    4. No alteration of boundaries of the protected areas is possible without the NBWL’s approval.


Focus: GS 3; Awareness In The Fields Of It, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-Technology, Bio-Technology, Pharma Sector & Health Science

Why in News?

Status of Avian Influenza in the country

About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Indian outbreak

  • Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been circulating worldwide for centuries with four known major outbreaks recorded in the last century.
  • It is a viral infection that can infect not only birds, but also humans and other animals.
  • Most forms of the virus are restricted to birds.
  • It is a highly contagious viral disease affecting several species of food-producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds.
  • Occasionally mammals, including humans, may contract avian influenza.
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on two surface proteins, Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA).
  • According to Paris-based World Organisation for Animal Health, H5N8 avian influenza is a disease of birds, caused by Type “A” influenza viruses, which can affect several species of domestic poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, ducks, as well as pet birds, wild migratory birds and water fowl.
About Avian Influenza outbreak regaridng India
  • India notified the first outbreak of avian influenza in 2006. 
  • In India, the disease spreads mainly by migratory birds coming into India during winter months i.e. from September – October to February – March. 
  • After confirmation of positive samples from ICAR-NIHSAD, AI has been reported from the following States (at 12 epicentres)
  • Present outbreak in India as follows;-
  1. Rajasthan(crow) – Baran, Kota, Jhalawar
  2. Madhya Pradesh(crow) – Mandsaur, Indore, Malwa
  3. Himachal Pradesh (migratory birds) – Kangra
  4. Kerala (poultry-duck) –  Kottayam, Allapuzha (4 epicentres)
  • In view of a threat of global outbreak of AI, the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD), Government of India had prepared an action plan in 2005 which was revised in 2006, 2012 , 2015 and 2021 for guidance of State Government for prevention, control and containment of Avian Influenza in the Country.
About Avian Influenza Transmission
  • Infection in humans is not yet reported in India though the disease is zoonotic. 
  • There is no direct evidence that AI viruses can be transmitted to humans via the consumption of contaminated poultry products.
  • Implementing management practices that incorporate bio security principles, personal hygiene, and cleaning and disinfection protocols, as well  as cooking and processing standards, are effective means of controlling the spread of the AI viruses.
About Avian Influenza Control Measure
  • Culling is usually undertaken to control the infection when it is detected in animals.
  • Besides culling, safe disposal of all such culled animals and animal products is also important.
  • The authorities also need to strictly enforce decontamination of infected premises and undertake quarantine of contaminated vehicles and personnel.
About World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
  • The World Organization for Animal Health (formerly the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)) is the world organisation for animal health recognized by the SPS Agreement.
  • Founded in 1924, the OIE has six main missions to ensure transparency in the global animal disease situation.
  • It is recognised as a reference organisation by the World Trade Organization (WTO).
  • In 2018, it had a total of 182 Member Countries.
  • India is a member country.
  • It is headquartered in Paris, France.


Focus: GS 3;Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Why in News?

Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman chairs review meeting of the National Infrastructure Pipeline

About National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP)

  • The National Infrastructure Pipeline is a group of social and economic infrastructure projects in India over a period of five years with an initial sanctioned amount of ₹102 lakh crore.
  • The pipeline was first made public by the Prime Minister of India during his 2019 Independence Day speech.
  • NIP will enable a forward outlook on infrastructure projects which will create jobs, improve ease of living, and provide equitable access to infrastructure for all, thereby making growth more inclusive.
  • NIP includes economic and social infrastructure projects.
  • It has outlined plans to invest more than ₹102 lakh crore on infrastructure projects by 2024-25, with the Centre, States and the private sector to share the capital expenditure in a 39:39:22 formula.
  • During the fiscals 2020 to 2025, sectors such as Energy (24%), Roads (19%), Urban (16%), and Railways (13%) amount to around 70% of the projected capital expenditure in infrastructure in India.
Sector-wise break-up of the NIP 
steel 008 
Food Processing 
School Education 
P Orts 
Higher Education 
Atomic Energy 
Petroleum Natural Gas 
Industrial Corridors 
Digital Infra 
Drinking Water 
Rural Infra 
Renewable Energy 
Conventional Power 
Urban and H-busing 
• 024 
I .18 
I. 43 
I _ 69 
I .95 
3 _ 20 
3 _ 62 
Values in Rs. Lakh Crores 
Roads, urban and housing, railways, power (renewable and conventional) and irrigation to comprise —80% of the NIP


Focus: GS 3;Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Why in News?

The Prime Minister welcomed Germany’s decision to join the International Solar Alliance (ISA), and expressed his desire to further strengthen cooperation with Germany under the platform of Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).

About International Solar Alliance (ISA)

  • The International Solar Alliance is an alliance of 121 countries initiated by India, most of them being sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
  • The primary objective of the alliance is to work for efficient consumption of solar energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
  • The initiative was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the India Africa Summit, and a meeting of member countries ahead of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris in November 2015.
  • The Headquarters of ISA is in Gurugram, Haryana, India.
  • The Purpose of ISA is Bring together a group of nations to endorse clean energy, sustainable environment, public transport and climate
  • The membership of ISA is applicable to all UN Members.
  • The alliance is a treaty-based inter-governmental organization.
  • Countries that do not fall within the Tropics can join the alliance and enjoy all benefits as other members, with the exception of voting rights.
  • After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide.
  • The framework agreement of the International Solar Alliance opened for signatures in Marrakech, Morocco in November 2016, and 200 countries have joined.
First Assembly of International Solar Alliance inaugurated in New Delhi  current affairs ias prelims exam, upsc weekly current affairs compilation  free pdf

Please Click on this link for detailed explanation about Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)

December 2023