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Focus: GS-II International Relations

Why in news?

  • The final draft of the Declaration on the Commemoration of the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the U.N. favours a softer approach to the process of the expansion of membership.
  • The Declaration is a powerful reiteration of the U.N.’s founding principles that brought a new world order 75 years ago in the backdrop of the World War II.
  • The declaration did mention that U.N. commits to instill new life in the discussions on the reform of the Security Council, however, mention of ‘discussions’ is being interpreted as dilution of the progress made on the path of reform of the principal organs of the U.N.

Question of equitable representation

  • In 2008, the General Assembly had ‘decided’ to proceed with the “modalities in order to prepare and facilitate intergovernmental negotiations on the question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council and other matters related to the Council”.
  • In 2005, the call for reform was demanded in the backdrop of widespread unilateral decisions as seen during the Iraq war of 2003 and the “war on terror”, expressing strong global will to stop misuse of military power.
  • Mention of just ‘discussion’ in the draft final statement in place of ‘negotiations’ shows the Security Council’s expansion and reform have received a textual setback.

India’s Stance

  • India’s diplomatic machinery repeatedly urged for strengthening of the UNSC by including new members.
  • As of now developing or emerging economies are not adequately represented in the highest organs with only one developing country, that is China, participating in the global high tables of the U.N. on an equal basis armed with the right of veto.
  • India became a non-permanent member of the Security Council for a single year term of 2021-22, and this was seen as a boost for its demand for the actual reform and expansion of the UNSC.
  • The demand for expansion was also present, in call for a “reformed multilateralism”, in the India Prime Minister’s keynote address at the High-Level Segment of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
  • India’s 2021-’22 tenure will end as it will take over presidency of G20.

Click Here to read more about the PM’s Keynote Address at ECOSOC

Click Here to read more about UNSC and India’s Position

-Source: The Hindu

December 2023