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UPSC Mains 2022 Model Answer GS Paper I

UPSC MAINS MODEL ANSWER GENERAL STUDIES PAPER – 1 

GENERAL STUDIES

PAPER – 1


Q1 How will you explain that medieval Indian temple sculptures represent the social life of those days? (Answer in 150 words)

Symbolic representations of the various social and cultural activities can be found in Temple Sculptures. Sculptures in Vijay Vitthala Temple- Vijayanagar Empire- Rang Mandapa show, music, and dance were important aspects of life.

Examples

  • Temples acted as educational centers. Sculptures at Khajuraho represent the Grihastha Life: Mithun sculptures, showing couples.
  • Sur Sundari (female figures): shows more idealistic nature of the artists at the time than realism.
  • Represented social evils: Ranga Mancha
  • Devdasiyan-Small kids, sacrificing their whole life for temples, used to perform lifelong in the temples.
  • Social Beliefs of the time: Movable sculptures show the event of once-a-year God visiting outside the temple- so untouchables could access Gods as they weren’t allowed inside the temples.
  • Religious Beliefs of the time: Sculpture representing the god Shiva and his wife Parvati represents the union of male and female and marital fidelity.
  • Through the temples, the wealth generated from farms was circulated among weavers, garland makers, dancers, and musicians, who contributed to the many rites, rituals, and festivals of the temple.


2. Why did the armies of the British East India Company mostly composed of Indian soldiers win consistently against the more numerous and better-equipped armies of the then Indian rulers? Give reasons. (Answer in 150 words)

Wars and Battles fought by the British such as Anglo-Sikh wars, Anglo-Mysore wars, and the Anglo-Maratha wars.

Reasons accredited to the win of the Armies of the British East India Company are as follows:

  • Better Tactics and Strategy (Subsidiary Alliance)
  • Strong financial back-up: Enough funds from shareholders due to which they paid regular and good salaries.
  • Superior Arms and ammunition: Advanced firepower and guns, modern muskets and cannon.
  • Infighting: Lot of infighting among rulers as well as within the kingdom to dethrone the rulers.
  • Quality of Leadership: Robert Clive, Warren Hastings, Elphinstone, Munro, etc, and supported by second-line leadership of Sir Eyre Coote, Lord Lake, Arthur Wellesley, etc.
  • Process of selection of officers: Selected the soldiers based on skills rather than based on heredity, caste, and clan.
  • The hiring of martial Classes: Sikhs, Punjabis, Dogras, Gurkas, Garhwalis, and Pakhtuns (Pathans) were martial classes who helped the British to suppress several mutinies. Initially, the Britishers did not have many Indian soldiers but slowly started recruiting from Indian classes and communities.


3. Why was there a sudden spurt in famines in colonial India since the mid-eighteenth century? Give reasons. (Answer in 150 words)

Answer: Recurring Famines were a central feature of British Rule: The Great Bengal Famine of 1770, the Deccan Famine of 1630, the Agra famine of 1837-38, etc. More than 4 crore people died.

Causes for a sudden spurt in famines in colonial India:

  • Man-Made Famine: Indian grains were diverted to war expeditions at foreign soil during WWII.
  • Rainfed Agriculture: impacted by the failure of monsoon.
  • Lack of Institutional Development: irrigation, no scientific agriculture, focus on cash crops (tea, indigo, jute, etc).
  • Lack of diversity in employment: (over-dependence on agriculture).
  • Role of Railway: (spike that pierced rural India): agricultural surplus transported to deficit areas, as well as to cater to the needs of the British army.
  • Destruction of Rural Economy: Heavy import duty. withdrawal of patronage, etc transformed artisans into agricultural peasants.
  • Commercialization of agriculture
  • Colonial plunder, drain of wealth, and monopoly profits in international trade exacerbated the droughts toward famines.

No major famine occurred in India after independence.


4. Describe the characteristics and types of primary rocks. (Answer in 150 words)

Primary rock types: Rocks formed from the solidification of magma and lava are known as igneous or primary rocks. Granite, gabbro, basalt, are some examples of igneous rocks.

Characteristics of primary rocks:

  1. Unfossiliferous: Having their origin under conditions of high temperatures the igneous rocks are unfossiliferous. They do not contain fossils.
  2. Devoid of layers: They are non-stratified rocks (do not occur in layers).
  3. Crystalline rocks: They are formed by the cooling and solidification of molten magma. Thus, they are crystalline in nature. E.g., old rocks of the great Indian peninsula.
  4. Texture: They may have fine-grained or glassy textures (e.g., extrusive igneous rock).
  5. Color: light or dark colour.
  6. Composition: Usually made of two or more minerals with major mineral silica
  7. Hardness: They are resistant to erosion and are usually hard and impervious.

Types of primary rocks:

  1. Intrusive igneous rocks (e.g., Granite):
  2. If magma cools slowly at great depths, mineral grains formed in the rocks may be very large.
  3. These rocks appear on the surface only after being uplifted and denuded.
  4. Sedimentary rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone):
  5. Sedimentary rocks are formed on or near the Earth’s surface, in contrast to metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are formed deep within the Earth.
  6. The most important geological processes that lead to the creation of sedimentary rocks are erosion, weathering, dissolution, precipitation, and lithification.
  7. Metamorphic rocks (e.g., marble, schist, soapstone):
  8. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth’s crust and form 12% of the Earth’s land surface.
  9. Metamorphic rock can be formed locally when rock is heated by the intrusion of hot molten rock called magma from the Earth’s interior.


5. Discuss the meaning of color-coded weather warnings for cyclone prone areas given by the India Meteorological Department. (Answer in 150 words)

Cyclone colour coding

IMD’s uses different colour codes since 2006 as desired by the National Disaster Management:

  • Green: “all is well” with no adverse weather conditions.
  • Yellow: “be updated” to handle the bad weather that can last for days, with a warning of affecting daily activities.
  • Orange: “be prepared” Warning of extreme damage to communication disruptions that can lead to power cuts, and road and railway blockages. It is also a sign for evacuation.
  • Red: “take action” is the highest level of warning when there is a threat to life with the worst weather conditions.

Stages:

  1. The First Stage (“PRE-CYCLONE WATCH”): issued 72 hours in advance, contains an early warning about the development of a cyclonic disturbance.
  2. The Second Stage (“CYCLONE ALERT”): issued at least 48 hours in advance, information about the commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas.
  3. The Third Stage (“CYCLONE WARNING”): issued at least 24 hours in advance. The landfall point is forecast at this stage.
  4. The Fourth Stage (“POST LANDFALL OUTLOOK”): issued at least 12 hours in advance of the expected time of landfall.


6. Discuss the natural resource potentials of “Deccan Trap’. (Answer in 150 words)

  1. Oil and natural gas potential:
  2. Scientists from the city-based National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) have noticed the presence of oil and natural gas and also shale gas.
  3. Soil samples collected from Telangana and other areas revealed the potentiality of the region in oil and natural gas reserves.
  4. Mesozoic-Gondwana sediments were found with a maximum thickness of 3 km.
  5. Uranium potential:
  6. Uranium mineralisation is found at the Deccan trap (basalt)-lameta-crystalline basement contact zone hosted in ferruginous chert veins occupying fractures in the basal part of the flow as well as in pseudo quartzites in the lameta formation.
  7. Groundwater resources potential:
  8. The older rocks have a syncline for the water. It will be done under the Jal Jeevan Mission (Maharashtra will be the first state).


7. Examine the potential of wind energy in India and explain the reasons for its limited spatial spread. (Answer in 150 words)

India’s Potential:

  • The National Institute of Wind Energy estimates a total wind energy potential of 302 GW at a hub height of 100 meters above ground.
  • The Potential Under two heads: Onshore wind farms (large installations of wind turbines) and Offshore wind farms (located in bodies of water).
  • India can generate 127 GW of offshore wind energy with its 7,600 km of coastline.
  • Global onshore wind power farms are expected to grow by more than 60 GW in 2019, and global capacity from onshore wind energy applications is projected to reach nearly 750 GW by 2022.

Reasons for Limited Spatial Spread:

  • Concentrated at few pockets: issue with the evacuation of the power due to clustered nature of installations (E.g., Tamil Nadu and Gujarat).
  • Universal Funding challenge and low capital.
  • Challenge of land acquisition.
  • Wind Energy Policy has been much delayed.
  • Coastal Vulnerabilities due to cyclones: Western coast is preferred, but Arabian sea also warming up.
  • Insurance penetration is Low and premium is high.
  • Changing Weather patterns are a concern.
  • Higher cost, challenges in grid connectivity.


8. Explore and evaluate the impact of Work from Home on family relationships. (Answer in 150 words)

Positive impact of Work from Home on family relationships

  • improving through proper adaptive processes.
  • Spending more time with family members.
  • Moderating the Demographic differences (gender, marital status, age, and educational level).
  • Greater flexibility in schedule and day-to-day life is easier to manage.
  • Can avoid the time-consuming commute which leads to amicable home routine life.
  • Spend less money outside of the house which strengthens the family savings.
  • Flexibility in a living location: One can choose where to live as one is not tied to a city or region.

However, some of the negative impacts of Work from Home on family relationships

  • Interference of work with private life.
  • There is a trade-off between family relationships and work-life balance – because family relationship quality, in turn, negatively predicted the perceived work-life balance.
  • Can be difficult to separate ‘work’ hours from ‘life’ hours.
  • May lose the creative spark and speed that comes from in-person collaboration.
  • Mental health can get affected and in turn the family relationship too because of the need to stay at home most of the time.

A US Government survey suggested that, overall, WFH had a positive relation to time spent with family members, and this relation was especially salient for workers with lower education levels.


9. How is the growth of Tier 2 cities related to the rise of a new middle class with an emphasis on the culture of consumption? (Answer in 150 words)

New middle-class and tier 2 cities:

  • The LPG era increased entrepreneur activity leading to a significant expansion of white – collar jobs in tier 2 cities.
  • Globalization led to the rise in the service sector which contributes more than 50 % to India’s GDP and more than 64% of jobs in the tier 2 and tier 3 cities.
  • Digital revolution, increased incomes, and westernization of habits under Globalisation: helped in the promotion of popular culture and changed the consumption habits of this class.
  • Government efforts: Make in India, Stand-up India, Start-up India, MUDRA Yojana, JAM trinity, UDAN, etc. are expected to bring more people into the fold of ‘new middle class ‘.

Tier-II Indian cities emerge as major realty growth engines:

  • Attractive options for larger firms: tier 2 cities like Jaipur, Patna, Indore, and Surat have recorded an economic growth rate of over 40%,
  • Disposable income increased: By 2030, 80% of households will be middle-income leading to increase in Disposable income.
  • Value for money is an important factor in determining consumer behaviour in India.
  • New to E-commerce: There are over 15 million traditional “kirana” stores in India – 88% of the retail market. Many families visit every 2-3 days to stock up on fresh produce.
  • Mobilizing the potential workforce from rural areas.
  • Moderate cost of living in tier II cities: a better lifestyle leads to more consumption.


10. Given the diversities among tribal communities in India, in which specific contexts should they be considered as a single category? (Answer in 150 words)

Diversity in Tribes

  • Geographical Distribution: The Naga, Rengma Naga, Sema Naga (Nagaland); Garos, Khasis, Khasas (Assam); Bhils (Madhya Pradesh); Soligas (Mysore); Thodas in Nilgiri Hills (Tamil Nadu).
  • Language diversity: Different tribes speak different languages.
  • Diversity in the pattern of worship: They are worshippers of the Hindu deities, Animism, and all forms of pagan worship. Nagas, Mizos, Santhals, Oraons and Munda, etc., have embraced Christianity. Butia and Lepcha Chakma have largely been identified with Buddhism.
  • Distinct way of Life: Each tribe has its way of behaving, thinking, feeling, and, acting. Each has its customs, traditions, morals, values, peculiar institutions in brief and its own culture. The very peculiarities of a tribe reveal that it has a distinctive culture of its own.

Aspects of a single category

  • Worship of a common ancestor: The members of a tribe usually worship a common ancestor. Also, ‘nature worship’ is common amongst them.
  • The unanimity with nature: The Indian tribes live in harmony with the nature in which they survive. Tribal living perfectly portrays a well-balanced environment.
  • Belief in Magic: Belief in magic is also widespread among them.
  • Simplicity and Self-Sufficiency: A tribal society is not complex, simple in character, and self-reliant.
  • Difference from mainstream society.


11. The political and administrative reorganization of states and territories has been a continuous ongoing process since the mid-nineteenth century. Discuss with examples. (Answer in 250 words)

British conquest started the political reorganization of India. Local rulers and kings were defeated (Battle of Plassey and Buxar) and boundaries were redrawn. The company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, which were called “presidencies”. Examples: Bombay, Madras, Calcutta Presidency.

Since 1850s

  • The East India Company dominated India until the 1850s.
  • A huge uprising in 1857 led to the direct and official takeover of India by the British government.
  • The British improved India’s legal, justice and civil service systems, introduced better military training, built a few universities and created telegraph, postal, rail and road networks.

During and after independence in 1947

  • India had more than 500 disjointed princely states.
  • Temporarily these constituent units were divided into Part A, B, C, and D states.
  • During British Rule, certain areas were constituted as ‘scheduled districts’ of areas in 1874. They were termed ‘chief commissioners’ provinces. They were finally placed in the category of Part ‘C’ States and Part ‘D’ Territories.
  • States Reorganisation Act and the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act (1956):
  • In 1960, the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into two separate states Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  • The territories were acquired from the Portuguese (Goa, Daman, and Diu, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli) and the French (Puducherry) and constituted Union Territories.

Similar reorganizations have continued. The latest was done with the state of Jammu and Kashmir.


12. Discuss the main contributions of the Gupta period and Chola period to Indian heritage and culture.  (Answer in 250 words)

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is considered as the Golden Age of India by historians.

Contribution of Gupta Period:

  • The paintings of the Gupta period are seen at Bagh caves near Gwalior. The mural paintings of Ajantha mostly illustrate the life of the Buddha as depicted in the Jataka stories.
  • Temple of Gupta Period: Both the Nagara and Dravidian styles of art evolved during this period. The temple at Deogarh near Jhansi and the sculptures in the temple near Allahabad remain important specimens of Gupta art.
  • The Sanskrit language became prominent during the Gupta period. Nagari script had evolved from the Brahmi script. Numerous works in classical Sanskrit came in the forms of epic, lyrics, drama, and prose. The best of the Sanskrit literature belonged to the Gupta age. Ex: Kalidasa, Harisena
  • The Gupta period witnessed brilliant activity in the sphere of mathematics, astronomy, astrology and medicine. Ex: Aryabhatta, Varahamihira.
  • The Gupta coinage was also remarkable. Samudragupta issued eight types of gold coins.
  • Metallurgy also made wonderful progress during the Gupta period. The Delhi Iron pillar of the Gupta period is still free from rust.

Chola period: The Chola Dynasty was a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India and one of the longest-ruling dynasties in world history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire.

Contribution of Chola Period:

  • Chola kings constructed numerous temples throughout their kingdom: Brihadeshwara Temple.
  • Sculpture development in bronze, made from lost wax techniques (famous Nataraja Sculpture).
  • The art of music flourished during the Chola period. Nambiandar and Nathamuni contributed to the development of music.
  • Paintings: Paintings in the Temples are excellent examples. Scenes of Periyapuranam are beautifully depicted at Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram.
  • Great strides were also made in literature during the Chola period. Tamil poets include Kalladanar, Kambar, and Pugalandhi.

It is the contributions of the Gupta to Indian heritage and culture that earned them a glory of the golden age in Indian history. Similarly for the same reasons, The Cholas, devout Hindus, who built majestic temples rich with inscriptions, engravings, and bronze idols are remembered till date.


13. Discuss the significance of the lion and bull figures in Indian mythology, art, and architecture. (Answer in 250 words)

The significance of the bull as a symbol of fertility and strength was widespread in India as early as the Indus Valley Civilization (about 2000 BC), as well as in ancient Egypt, Greece and the Near East. There are many gods and goddesses in Hinduism.

Significance of Bull in Indian Mythology:

  • Nandikeshwara or Nandideva is the bull vahana of Lord Shiva.
  • The bull is also a symbol of First Jain Tirthankara Adinatha.
  • In Buddhism ‘Bull’ is related to the Janma (Birth).

Significance of Bull in Indian Art and Architecture:

  • Bull is seen painted in the prehistoric rock shelters- Bhimbetka.
  • Prehistoric clay modelers are working out terracotta bulls.
  • Several steatite seals and sealings with bull figures in Indus Valley.
  • The bull appeared on the silver punch-marked coins, on copper cast coins in some Kusana emperors and of Skandagupta.
  • Many Emblems of Indian history such as Rashtrakuta, and Pallavas contain Bull.
  • Feature of Gavaksha: Gavaksha means bull’s or cow’s eye. Found in Lomash Rishi Caves and Barabar Caves. Early rock-cut chaitya halls use the same ogee shape for the main window needed to illuminate the interior, and often also have small relief window motifs as decoration.
  • Bull Capital of Mauryan Empire: Rampurva Bull

Lions have been widely used in sculpture to provide a sense of majesty and awe, especially on public buildings. Lions were bold creatures and many ancient cities would have an abundance of lion sculptures to show strength in numbers as well.

Significance of Lion in Indian Mythology:

  • Narasimha- Avatar of Vishnu
  • Lions are also found in Buddhism symbolism. In Buddhism, lions are symbolic of the Bodhisattvas.
  • Yali is a Hindu mythological creature portrayed with the head and body of a lion.
  • Lion shown as vahana of Druga.

Significance of Lion in Art and Architecture:

  • Pillars of Ashoka
  • Used in painting throughout Indian history.
  • Used in Numismatics such as Western Chalukayas.

The symbolism of animals is extremely important in Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist mythology. As a result, the value of animals and birds transcends their natural existence into the domain of the spiritual and reflected in architecture and arts. Animals are also revered in this country, therefore their importance in spiritual arts and Indian and tribal art forms is undeniable.


14. What are the forces that influence ocean currents? Describe their role in the fishing industry of the world. (Answer in 250 words)

Ocean currents are the continuous, predictable, directional movement of seawater driven by gravity, wind (Coriolis Effect), and water density. Ocean water moves in two directions: horizontally and vertically. Horizontal movements are referred to as currents, while vertical changes are called upwellings or downwellings.

Factors affecting Ocean currents

  • The rotation of the earth: The rotation of the earth produces coriolis force as well as helps in Ekman transport, thus impacting ocean currents.
  • Temperature Difference: Water moves due to the expansion of volume from the equatorial region (high temperature) to polar areas (colder areas).
  • Salinity Difference: Currents are generated from the areas of less salinity to the areas of greater salinity.
  • Density Difference: Water moves from the areas of lower density to the areas of higher density (impacted by temperature and salinity).

Role of Ocean Currents in the Fishing Industry

  • Many species with limited mobility are dependent on currents to bring food and nutrients to them and to distribute larvae and reproductive cells.
  • They also impact the migration of various species.
  • Mixing of warm and cold currents creates favourable grounds for fish. The blending of warm and cold currents replenishes the oxygen and promotes the formation of planktons (Mixing of Gulf Stream & Labrador or Kuroshio & Oyashio).
  • Upwelling currents bring cold nutrient-rich waters from the ocean bottom to the surface, supporting many of the fisheries.

Conclusion So, Currents affect the availability of nutrients for plant growth, and thus the availability of food for marine animals like planktons.


15. Describing the distribution of rubber-producing countries, indicate the major environmental issues faced by them. (Answer in 250 words)

Asia is the largest producer of the world and produces about 91 per cent of the world production, followed by Africa which produces 6 per cent.  Thailand is the highest rubber producer in the world, which produced 31.29 per cent of world production. Indonesia is the second largest producer.

Distribution of Rubber producing countries:

  • Climatic Conditions require temperatures above 25°C with a moist, and humid climate & rainfall of more than 200 cm. Thus, tropical regions are suitable for rubber plantation.
  • Despite natural rubber being native to the Amazon basin, approximately 90 percent of the world’s supply is grown in Asia.
  • At the forefront of the 20th century, Brazil became the first nation to grow rubber trees commercially and produced almost all the world’s rubber (99%). Today, it produces less than 1%.
  • Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, and China are the top 5 rubber producing countries.
  • According to FAOstat, Thailand grows 35% of the world’s natural rubber supply.
  • Most synthetic rubber is produced in the United States, Japan, Russia, and the countries of Western Europe. China was the world’s largest producer of synthetic rubber in 2020 (22%).

Intermediate products from natural rubber industries include ribbed smoked sheets (RSS), air dried sheets (ADS), block rubber, crepe rubber, and concentrated rubber latex. In these production processes, many environmental problems arise. These include air, water, and odor pollution.

Environment Implications faced by Rubber producing countries:

  • Deforestation: Natural rubber contributes to deforestation.
  • Consumes large volumes of water and energy: Rubber plants require more water which reduces groundwater potential. Washing consumes a large amount of water, therefore, wastewater generated is a major issue.
  • The use of large amounts of chemicals can cause serious environmental impacts in the neighbouring receptor water bodies.
  • Discharges of massive amounts of waste and effluents: led to water pollution
  • Biodiversity loss: Rubber plantation leads to reduced total carbon biomass and impacts climate change.
  • Impact on Natural vegetation and soil quality: In Kerala, rubber plantations replaced natural vegetation. Studies linked this to reduced biodiversity, river flow, and soil nutrients.

Conclusion

Intermediate products from natural rubber industries include ribbed smoked sheets (RSS) , air dried sheets (ADS) , block rubber, crepe rubber, and concentrated rubber latex. In these production processes, many environmental problems arise. These include air, water, and odor pollutions.


16. Mention the significance of Straits and Isthmus in international trade. (Answer in 250 words)

Strait is a navigable waterway that connects two large water bodies, while Isthmus is a thin strip of land that connects two larger areas of land.

Straits and Isthmus – importance in international trade.

  • They are natural sites for ports, trade routes, and canals linking terrestrial and aquatic trade routes.
  • They are key sites for communications and cultural exchange, as well as military outposts.
  • Fast communicating routes located at strategic positions of the world.
  • Resources: It aids in discovering the abundance of minerals, oil, and gas that are found beneath the sea.
  • Economical aspect-Countries in charge of straits levy high charges to international ships transiting the straits.
  • The natural ocean water provides a smooth roadway that may be travelled in both directions and requires no maintenance.
  • Provide well connectivity and establish the connection between developed and developing nations. Example Malacca strait, Kra isthmus.

Examples of Straits and isthmus- importance in international trade.

  • Strait of Malacca-busiest strait – trade from the Indian Ocean to the south china sea and further.
  • The Panama Canal allows cargo ships to travel from eastern North America to western North America without having to go around South America.
  • Strait of Gibraltar-Gateway for the Mediterranean region and the trade there.
  • The Malay Peninsula and the Asian mainland are connected by the Isthmus of Kra– a narrow neck of southern Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand.


17. Troposphere is a very significant atmospheric layer that determines weather processes. Give reasons. (Answer in 250 words)

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere. Most of the mass (about 75-80%) of the atmosphere is in the troposphere. Most types of clouds are found in the troposphere, and almost all weather occurs within this layer.

Significance of Troposphere in determining weather processes –

  • Presence of water vapor and clouds: Earth’s troposphere contains 80% of the mass and most of the water vapor in the atmosphere, and consequently most of the clouds and stormy weather.
  • Vertical mixing is an important process in the troposphere.
  • Compression and expansion of Air: Temperature falls off with height at a predictable rate because the air near the surface is heated and becomes light and the air higher up cools to space and becomes heavy, leading to an unstable configuration and convection.
  • Principles of Heat Transfer: In reality, latent heating due to water vapor—and horizontal heat transports—causes the temperature profile to decrease slightly less with height than such an adiabat. As a result, the troposphere is slightly stable to convection.
  • Energy in the Troposphere is very high
  • Adiabatic Lapse Rate: The process of convection relaxes the temperature profile toward the neutrally stable configuration called the adiabatic temperature lapse rate.
  • Cloud formation: In the troposphere, water vapor, which accounts for up to ∼1% of air, varies spatially and decreases rapidly with altitude. The water vapor mixing ratio in the stratosphere and above is almost four orders of magnitude smaller than that in the tropical lower troposphere.


18. Analyse the salience of ‘sect’ in Indian society vis-a-vis caste, region, and religion. (Answer in 250 words)

The sect is an ensemble of rituals and beliefs centering around a notion of the sacred. The sect is a social institution because the community of believers constitutes the basis of any religion. Religion is an organization because it consists of a hierarchy of deities, priests, prophets, and believers. Allows accommodation of diversity.

The salience of sect in Indian society

Caste and sect:

Religion and sect:

  • Sects allow the accommodation of diversity: Hinduism has different sects and follows different norms but thrives within Hinduism beliefs.
  • The emergence of new traits allows the development of new sects. Music is prohibited in Islam, but Sufism adopted it.
  • The co-existence of all the sects and variety of faiths has been a shining example of multi-sect Indian society.

Region and sect:

  • Implies the idea of constant change is intrinsic to contemporary Indian society.
  • Indian society is the result of the adoption of the different sects in different regions.
  • During this journey, it has gone through many transformations under the influence of outside India (Islam) and reform movements within the society (Sikhism).
  • Indian society is divided into various sects and castes. People divided themselves into religions based on what culture they followed and who according to them is God.
  • A caste group has similar customs, beliefs and rituals to form a sect in itself.

Conclusion

Indian society is the result of a journey from the Indus civilization to today’s globalized world. It has gone through many transformations under the influence of outside world and reform movements within the society. However, what is unique and appreciable is the fact that it has managed to adopt and accept various features while preserving its past.


19. Are tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism the key elements in the making of an Indian form of secularism? Justify your answer. (Answer in 250 words)

Notion of Indian Secularism

Based on the principle of ‘Sarv Dharm Samabhav’ and ‘Dharma nirapekshata’. Gives equal respect to all religions. It does not go for a water-tight separation between religion and state. Religions have interacted in common spaces like folklore, food pattern, dress, lifestyle, etc. making Indian tradition a syncretic tradition. During the medieval period, Persian, Arabic, and Urdu became popular. Indian culture transformed during this period giving way to a distinct’ Hindustani ‘ way of life.

Pluralism & Secularism:

  • Secularism, in the sense of respect for all religions, is a logical corollary of religious pluralism. Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity all exist in India.
  • Some of the religions which are disappearing from the world (Zoroastrianism) are thriving in India.
  • Some religious festivals are celebrated by all cutting across religions.
  • While Hindus celebrate Diwali, Dushehra, and Holi both from ritualistic and cultural aspects, other religious communities celebrate these festivals culturally.
  • Similar inference can be drawn on Christmas and Idul Fitr.
  • As per Article 26, every religious group or individual has the right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes and to manage its affairs in matters of religion.

Assimilation and Secularism:

  • Article 25 provides ‘Freedom of Conscience’. All persons enjoy the right to freely profess, practise and propagate religion.
  • The Supreme Court in January 2018 (Shakti Vahini vs. Union of India) declared it was illegal” for anyone to attack couples marrying outside their caste or religion.

Tolerance & Secularism:

  • “Sarva Dharma Samabhava” aims to provide equal respect to all religions.
  • The majority population in India is Hindu, still, India does not have an official state religion. However, most of the religious places in India like Varanasi, Tirupati, Ajmer Sharif or Haji Ali, etc. go beyond any single religious community.
  • Article 14 grants equality before the law and equal protection of the laws to all.
  • Article 15 prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
  • Article 29 and Article 30 provide cultural and educational rights to minorities.


20. Focus on elucidating the relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources, with special reference to India. (Answer in 250 words).

Globalization 4.0 is the latest stage of globalization which involves cutting-edge new technologies like artificial intelligence. These technologies shrink distances, open up borders and minds and bring people all across the globe closer together.

Relationship between Globalisation and New Technologies

  • Intangible flows of data and information,
  • Greater participation by emerging economies and transfer of technologies,
  • More knowledge-intensive flows,
  • Digital infrastructure becomes equally important,
  • The growing role of small enterprises and individuals,
  • More exchanges of free content and services,
  • Instant global access to information,
  • Innovation flows in both directions

Globalization 4.0 and scarce resources:

  • Resource recycling: many mobile companies have launched buy-back policies
  • Technological progress can increase both economic growth and better management of resources.
  • Climate change and resource scarcity will hit poor people and countries hardest, especially middle-income countries like India.
  • India faces a dual challenge-demographic dividend and rapid technological change.
  • Technological progress is placing a higher premium on skills and it may generate more inequality and conflict in India.
  • Climate change and resource scarcity have the potential to pose an existential challenge to globalization.
  • scarcity issues – together with other global risks such as financial crises, pandemics like Covid 19, or transboundary security risks such as terrorism and arms Proliferation – are part of a range of threats to globalization that epitomize why this greater sustainability, equity, and resilience is needed.

Conclusion

So, Globalization has strengthened manifold the Indian techno-logical capabilities in industries because of its impact in terms of the following: (i) learning competitive practices; (ii) learning through experiences (iii) learning from collaborations and strategic alliances and (iv) learning to pursue “business-driven” R&D.


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