UPSC MAINS MODEL ANSWER GENERAL STUDIES PAPER – 3
PAPER – 3
1. Why is Public Private Partnership (PPP) required in infrastructure projects ? Examine the role of the PPP model in the redevelopment of Railway Stations in India. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: Over the years, Public-Private Partnership (PPP) has emerged as a resilient model to undertake infrastructural development. PPP refers to a cooperative agreement between the government organization and a private firm to execute a project or provide services to the local population for the long term. Such a partnership is based on the premise of a mutually beneficial relationship between the two entities and is in line with Goal 17 of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs).
Indian Railways is an integral component of infrastructural development in the country. India boasts among the largest rail systems under single management in the world. Taking cognizance of its significance in overall infrastructural development, the NIP(National Infrastructure Pipeline) envisages the investment in Indian Railways worth Rs 11.43 lakh crore till 2024-25. RLDA(Rail Land Development Authority) is spearheading the redevelopment of 60 railway stations across India on a PPP Model.
The Indian Railways is just an example of realizing the benefits of PPP to accelerate infrastructural development. Fostering innovation and incorporating learning from across the world will be the key to unlocking its plethora of benefits and realizing the dream of a 5 trillion-dollar economy by 2024.
2. Is inclusive growth possible under a market economy? State the significance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: Inclusive growth infers an impartial allocation of resources with benefits incurred to every section of society and the allocation of resources must be focused on the intended short and long-term benefits of the society. A market economy is an economic system in which economic decisions and the pricing of goods and services are guided by the interactions of a country’s individual citizens and businesses.
Inclusive growth is not completely possible under a market economy because of inevitable periods of economic crisis. There is a possibility of higher unemployment levels and wider economic and social gaps. The labor can also get exploited for generating higher profits with no increase in wages. The basic necessities may be harder to provide, as they are affected by demand and supply because profiteering is favored over social welfare.
Financial inclusion is also an inextricable and significant part of the economic growth process. It boosts economic development as it contributes to enhancing the growth of institutions and financial sectors through the channel of the financial mechanism, as it allows businesses to get access to finance easily for expanding their investment and business in the long term, thus generating more employment opportunities and improving economic growth.
3. What are the major challenges of the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India? How can it be made effective and transparent? (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: The Public Distribution System (PDS) evolved as a system of management of scarcity through the distribution of food grains at affordable prices. PDS faces challenges like leakages and diversion of food grains, inclusion/exclusion errors; fake and bogus ration cards; lack of transparency; weak grievance redressal and social audit mechanisms, the viability of Fair Price Shops, etc.
PDS can be made effective and transparent through the adoption of modern technology, for instance computerization of PDS beneficiaries, to bring transparency to the system. The exclusion of private individuals to operate fair price shops. A clear division of responsibility between the Center and states, while the Center should be responsible for procurement, storage, transportation, and bulk allocation of foodgrains under PDS, states should bear the operational responsibilities such as allocations to fair price shops, identification of below poverty line families, issuing of ration cards and supervision and monitoring of functioning of fair price shops.
4. Elaborate the scope and significance of the food processing industry in India. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: Food processing is simply a method by which agricultural products are transformed into food products that are fit for consumption. The food processing industry forms a major part of India’s economy owing to the variety of food products that the country harvests and further processes for consumption.
Scope and Significance of the food processing industry in India
- India is the largest producer of milk, bananas, mangoes, guavas, papaya, ginger, and okra; the second-largest producer of wheat, rice, fruits, vegetables, tea, sugarcane, and cashew nuts and the third-largest producer of cereals, coconut, lettuce, chicory, nutmeg, mace, cardamom, and pepper worldwide.
- India’s food processing sector is one of the largest in the world and its output is expected to reach US$ 535 billion by 2025-26.
- This sector is expected to generate 9 million jobs by 2024.
- It is expanding at a CAGR of 11% and the food processing sector accounts for 32% of the total food industry and also US$ 4.18 billion in foreign direct investments between April 2014 and March 2020.
- The industry is engaged in both the primary and subsequent processing of agricultural products.
- Modern food production allows not only to produce of maximum products from the minimum amount of raw materials, using rational processing and other methods but also the preservation of products for a longer period of time, to avoid damage and rejection, which is no less important.
5. The increase in life expectancy in the country has led to newer health challenges in the community. What are those challenges and what steps need to be taken to meet them? (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: The term “life expectancy” refers to the number of years a person can expect to live. The current life expectancy for India in 2022 is 70.19 years, a 0.33% increase from 2021. (Provide date of 2-3 decade) India is presently in a state of transition — economically, demographically, and epidemiologically — in terms of health.
The impact of population aging is enormous and multifaceted i.e., deteriorating fiscal balance, changes in patterns of saving and investment, shortage in labor supply, lack of adequate welfare system, particular in developing economies, a possible decline in productivity and economic growth, and ineffectiveness of macroeconomic policy.In addition, the health infrastructure is already over-stretched.
The steps to be taken are, investing more in health and recognizing disease prevention and health promotion as the topmost priority. Encouraging older workers to remain longer in the labor force is often cited as the most viable solution to fiscal pressures and macroeconomic challenges related to population aging. The health system should be strengthened to improve the process of service delivery. The focus is on evidence, excellence, and equity. The private sector can also support health promotion and disease prevention activities under public-private partnerships and through corporate social responsibility initiatives. Engaging them in a creative and positive manner as partners for health action coordinated by the government can go a long way in addressing health challenges in the next decade and beyond.
6. Each year a large amount of plant material, cellulose, is deposited on the surface of Planet Earth. What are the natural processes this cellulose undergoes before yielding carbon dioxide, water and other end products ? (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: Cellulolysis is the process of breaking down cellulose into smaller polysaccharides called cellodextrins or completely into glucose units; this is a hydrolysis reaction. Because cellulose molecules bind strongly to each other, Cellulolysis is relatively difficult compared to the breakdown of other polysaccharides.
At temperatures above 350 °C, cellulose undergoes thermolysis (also called ‘pyrolysis’), decomposing into solid char, vapors, aerosols, and gases such as carbon dioxide. Maximum yield of vapors that condense to a liquid called bio-oil is obtained at 500 °C.Semi-crystalline cellulose polymers react at pyrolysis temperatures (350–600 °C) in a few seconds; this transformation has been shown to occur via a solid-to-liquid-to-vapor transition, with the liquid (called intermediate liquid cellulose or molten cellulose) existing for only a fraction of a second. Glycosidic bond cleavage produces short cellulose chains of two-to-seven monomers comprising the melt. Vapor bubbling of intermediate liquid cellulose produces aerosols, which consist of short-chain anhydrous-oligomers derived from the melt.
Continuing decomposition of molten cellulose produces volatile compounds including levoglucosan, furans, pyrans, light oxygenates, and gases via primary reactions. Within thick cellulose samples, volatile compounds such as levoglucosan undergo ‘secondary reactions’ to volatile products including pyrans and light oxygenates such as glycolaldehyde.
7. Discuss in detail the photochemical smog emphasizing its formation, effects, and mitigation. Explain the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: Photochemical smog, also known as summer smog, is a type of smog that is produced when UV light originating from the sun interacts with the oxides of nitrogen present in the atmosphere. It is formed by a complex series of chemical reactions involving sunlight, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds that are present in the atmosphere as a result of air pollution.
The chemicals contained within smog, when combined with hydrocarbons, form molecules that cause eye irritation. The atmospheric radicals interfere with the nitrogen cycle by stopping ground-level ozone from being eliminated. Ground-level ozone can prove to be extremely toxic to human beings.
The most obvious way to minimize photochemical smog levels is to eliminate the use of fossil fuels by using non-polluting or sustainable sources of electricity, such as nuclear power, hydropower, and wind power.
1999 Gothenburg Protocol
- The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-level Ozone by setting emissions ceilings for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and ammonia to be met by 2010.
- The Protocol is part of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
- The Convention is an international agreement to protect human health and the natural environment from air pollution by controlling and reducing air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution.
8. Explain the mechanism and occurrence of cloudburst in the context of the Indian subcontinent. Discuss two recent examples. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: The principal understanding of the cloudburst is associated with a sudden heavy deluge of precipitation in a very less time interval over a very small area. Cloudbursts are infrequent as they occur only via the orographic lift or occasionally when a warm air parcel mixes with cooler air, resulting in sudden condensation. Except for this understanding and the India Meteorology Department’s (IMD) definition of > 100 mm/h precipitation over a geographical region of approximately 20–30 km2, nothing much else is known about these events. There are very few studies carried out on the understanding of these events.
In October 2021, a cloudburst occurred above Pethanaickenpalayam town of Salem district, Tamil Nadu which resulted in 213 mm of rain in a single day. Ponds in the area filled up and so did the Thennakudipalayam lake. The Vasishta Nadi became flooded, making the Attur check dam brim with water. No damages were reported.In July 2022, Cloudburst occurred at Pahalgam en route to the Amarnath cave shrine.
9. Discuss the types of organized crimes. Describe the linkages between terrorists and organized crime that exist at the national and transnational levels. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: Organized crime means the commission of a crime at regular intervals in order to make money or profits. Some examples could include human trafficking, money laundering, smuggling, etc.
Organized crime has three major types: gang criminality, racketeering, and syndicated crime.
- Gang criminality type of criminality includes kidnapping, extortion, robbery, vehicle theft, etc. on a large scale.
- Racketeering is an activity of an organized criminal gang engaged in the extortion of money from both legitimate and illegitimate businesses through intimidation or force.
- Syndicated crime is furnishing illegal goods and services by an organized criminal gang, often called the ‘mafia’.
Organized crimes and terrorism exist because of ineffective governance and weak law and order set up in a country. Terrorists can benefit from organized crime as a source of financing or logistical support through the illicit trafficking of arms, persons, drugs, artifacts, and cultural property. But terrorist groups can also benefit from the illicit trade in natural resources and wildlife, the abuse of legitimate commercial enterprise, donations, and proceeds of criminal activity, including kidnapping for ransom, extortion, and bank robbery, as well as piracy.
Transnational organized criminal groups seek to exploit legitimate activities for criminal purposes. As organized crime groups join ever more complex networks spanning the globe, the crimes become increasingly transnational and the types of crime they can commit become diversified.
10. What are the maritime security challenges in India? Discuss the organizational, technical, and procedural initiatives taken to improve maritime security. (Answer in 150 words) 10
Solution: India has always been trapped in its neighborhood whether it is concerned with territorial disputes or sea disputes. India has not been able to align or realign its orientations in the post-Cold War era with the USA, nor it has been able to manage its differences with China which is another major hegemon in the Indian Ocean Region. India is facing many major challenges in the IOR which include piracy, terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, disputes with neighboring countries, etc.
To enhance maritime security, the principles of cooperation and flag state jurisdiction provide the legal foundation for ship boarding and enforcement. Such cooperation should include bordering states promptly seeking, and flag states promptly confirming, claims of nationality, and, where reasonable indications of illicit activity exist, authorizing boarding and search, or doing so themselves.
11. “Economic growth in the recent past has been led by an increase in labour activity.” Explain this statement. Suggest the growth pattern that will lead to creation of more jobs without compromising labour productivity. (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: Labor, capital, natural resources and entrepreneurship are the four essential components in the production of goods and services in an economy, where labor represents the human factor in producing the goods and services of an economy. The quantity and quality of labor that individuals supply is an important factor in determining the economy’s level of production and rate of growth. An important aspect of the labor market is the contribution made by the unique skills and abilities of all types of people. Another important aspect of the labor market is the mobility of the workers that it comprises. There is usually a need to increase both the number of jobs and the productivity as well as incomes from employment. The link between jobs and economic growth is not always a straight line for countries, but that does not mean it is broken. Economists track the relationship between jobs and growth using Okun’s Law, which says that higher growth leads to lower unemployment. In net, the sectoral bias of rising productivity has not diminished aggregate labor demand but has yielded skill-biased demand shifts.
India is indeed the fastest growing large economy in the world; yet with investment low, credit offtake low, capacity utilization in industry low, agricultural growth low, plant load factor low, it is hardly surprising that job growth is low as well.
There can be a growth pattern that will lead to creation of more jobs without compromising labor productivity.
- First, an industrial and trade policy is needed.
- Second, special packages are needed for labor-intensive industries to create jobs.
- Three, there should be cluster development to support job creation in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).
- Fourth, align urban development with manufacturing clusters to create jobs.
- Fifth, focus on women. Girls are losing out on jobs, or those with increasing education cannot find them, despite having gotten higher levels of education in the last 10 years.
- Sixth, public investments in health, education, police and judiciary can create many government jobs.
12. Do you think India will meet 50 percent of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2030 ? Justify your answer. How will the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables help achieve the above objective ? Explain. (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: India will need $223 billion of investment over the next eight years to meet its goal of wind and solar capacity installations by 2030.
India is rapidly expanding its deployment of solar and wind power generation technologies. Given India’s low installed costs for wind power and the country’s relatively late acceleration of solar PV deployment. After the significant cost reductions seen globally, total subsidies to renewable technologies in India were around USD 1 billion in 2015, increasing to USD 1.4 billion in 2016 and to USD 2.2 billion in 2017 (IISD, 2018).
In the short-term, rising interest rates, a depreciating rupee and high inflation create challenges for the financing of renewables. “Scaling up financing to meet 2030 goals requires Independent Power Producers to tap into new or underutilized sources of capital.
A fossil fuel subsidy is any government action that lowers the cost of fossil fuel energy production, raises the price received by energy producers, or lowers the price paid by energy consumers. Essentially, it is anything that rigs the game in favor of fossil fuels compared to other energy sources. Sustainable energy development sees a rebalancing of energy sector subsidies away from environmentally harmful subsidies towards environmentally friendly subsidies by 2050. As the deployment of renewable energy accelerates, notably in the end-use sectors, the total subsidies for renewables grow and reach USD 192 billion in 2030. This is driven by an increase in subsidies for renewable energy in transport, industry and buildings, as subsidies for renewable power generation fall.
Total annual subsidies for renewable energy increase by around 10% between 2030 and 2050 as deployment of renewable solutions in the hard to decarbonize industry and transport sectors increase. So with initial hiccups the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables will help to achieve the objective.
13. What are the main bottlenecks in the upstream and downstream process of marketing of agricultural products in India ? (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: The term agricultural marketing is composed of two words- agriculture and marketing. Agricultural marketing essentially involves the buying and selling of agricultural produce. Its dynamic functions are of primary importance in promoting economic development. For this reason, it has been described as the most important multiplier of agricultural development.
When the manufacturing production process is pictured like a river, upstream refers to the material inputs needed for production involving searching for and extracting raw materials.
, while downstream is the opposite end, where products get produced and distributed includes elements such as distribution, wholesaling and retailing, all of which are involved in ensuring timely delivery to clients.
The main defects of the agricultural marketing system are discussed here.
- Improper Warehouses: There is an absence of proper warehousing facilities in the villages.
- Lack of Grading and Standardization: Different varieties of agricultural produce are not graded properly.
- Inadequate Transport Facilities: Transport facilities are highly inadequate in India. Only a small number of villages are joined by railways and pucca roads to mandis.
- Presence of a Large Number of Middlemen: The chain of intermediaries in the agricultural market is so large that the share of farmers is reduced substantially.
- Malpractices in Unregulated Markets: Arhatiyas and brokers, taking advantage of the ignorance, and illiteracy of the farmers, use unfair means to cheat them.
- Inadequate Market Information: It is often not possible for the farmers to obtain information on exact market prices in different markets.
- Inadequate Credit Facilities: Indian farmer, being poor, tries to sell off the produce immediately after the crop is harvested though prices at that time are very low.
In the meantime, the Government has taken following important steps for the improvement of agricultural marketing in India:
- Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure (AMI),
- National Agriculture Market,
- E-NAM (National Agriculture Market),
- Farmer Producer Organizations, Food Corporation of India (FCI), and Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC).
Agricultural marketing plays an important role not only in stimulating production and consumption, but also in accelerating the pace of economic development.
14. What is an Integrated Farming System ? How is it helpful to small and marginal farmers in India ? (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: In an Integrated farming system, agriculture can be integrated with livestock, poultry and fish are maintained at the same place to generate employment around the year and also get additional income. For example, same place poultry in the upper layer and utilize their excreta. Pigs are in the lower layer, residual water from the pond was utilized for Agriculture and fodder crops production. Places where one crop in a year, scarcity in irrigation and low rainfall areas, Agriculture practiced with animal husbandry not only gives additional income and employment opportunity to the family members around the year and also livestock excreta utilized as manures lowered the cost of fertilizers. Additional yields from crops. Soil fertility was protected. Crop residues used as livestock feed will reduce the feed cost. In this method agriculture along with fodder and azolla production combined with animal husbandry we will get more benefits.
The IFS play a major role in biodiversity conservation through adoption of diversified cropping systems and through integration of indigenous livestock breeds. IFS also played an important role in improving soil organic carbon from 0.75 to 0.82%.
In our country, more than 80 % of farmers having a hectare or less than a hectare farm holders like small and marginal farmers. So, small and marginal farmers can cultivate part of their land with fodders like sorghum, maize and forage grass like Co-4 and guinea grass and legumes like Pillepesara and Stylo were fed to animals. Small farmers owning one hectare of land could allocate 0.8 hectares of land for agriculture, and 0.2 hectares of land for fodder production with modern technologies and if followed crop rotation, the returns from agriculture, milk and meat were high and they would realize more income. In this way IFS can help small and marginal farmers.
The main challenge associated with adoption of IFS is it requires skill, knowledge, resources, labor, and capital which are not always available with small and marginal farmers.
15. Launched on 25th December, 2021, James Webb Space Telescope has been much in the news since then. What are its unique features which make it superior to its predecessor Space Telescopes ? What are the key goals of this mission ? What potential benefits does it hold for the human race? (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope was launched by Ariane 5 ECA rocket from French Guiana in South America, early on December 25 2021, thus opening a new era of astronomy. The Webb telescope reached its destination in solar orbit about 1.6 million km from Earth after traveling 2 weeks in space.
- By comparison, Webb’s 30-year-old predecessor, the Hubble Space Telescope, orbits the Earth from about 550 km away, passing in and out of the planet’s shadow every 90 minutes. Webb’s near- and mid-infrared instruments will help study the first formed galaxies, exoplanets, and birth of stars. Hubble studied the toddler stage of galaxies while Webb can observe the baby stage too.
- The primary difference between Webb and Herschel is the wavelength range: Webb covers 0.6 to 28 microns, while Herschel covers 60 to 500 microns. Herschel’s mirror is 3.5 meters in diameter, while Webb’s primary mirror has a diameter of 6.5 meters.
Webb is the most powerful infrared telescope launched by NASA. The telescope is the result of an international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency.
Objectives of the Webb space telescope:
- Search for the galaxies that formed the very beginning after the Big Bang.
- Determine the evolution of galaxies from their earlier formation until now.
- Observe the stages of the formation of stars until the formation of planetary systems.
- Measure the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems and investigate the potential for life in such systems.
Webb will reveal new and unexpected discoveries, and help humanity understand the origins of the universe and our place in it. The telescope will also study the atmospheres of a wide diversity of exoplanets.
It will also search for atmospheres similar to Earth’s, and the signatures of key substances such as methane, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and complex organic molecules, in hopes of finding the building blocks of life.
16. What is the basic principle behind vaccine development? How do vaccines work? What approaches were adopted by the Indian vaccine manufacturers to produce COVID-19 vaccines ? (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: A vaccine is a biological preparation that develops acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.
The principle of vaccination is to induce protection against a pathogen by mimicking its natural interaction with the human immune system. The vaccine reduces the risk of complications and mortality following subsequent exposure to an infectious agent.
- When viruses or bacteria (germs) invade our body, they attack and multiply. This invasion is called an infection, and the infection is what causes illness.
- The first time the body encounters a germ, it can take several days for the immune system to make and use all the tools it needs to fight the infection.
- After the infection has been eradicated, the immune system keeps a few “memory cells” that remember what it learned about how to protect against that disease.
- If the body encounters the same virus or bacteria again, it will produce antibodies to attack the germ more quickly and efficiently. In this way the vaccine works.
India’s National Covid-19 Vaccination Strategy is based on scientific and epidemiological evidence and focuses on systematic end-to-end planning.
Vaccination Strategy encourages domestic R&D, domestic manufacturing and efficient administration of vaccination to protect and strengthen the country’s Healthcare System as well as protect the most vulnerable.
- Phase-I of the National Covid-19 Vaccination Strategy was launched on 16th January 2021 and focused on protecting Health Care Workers (HCWs) and Front-Line Workers (FLWs).
- Phase-II was initiated from 1st March 2021 and 1st April 2021 and focused on protecting the most vulnerable i.e., population more than 45 years of age that accounts for more than 80% Covid mortality in the country.
- Phase-III, the National Vaccine Strategy aims at liberalized vaccine pricing and scaling up of vaccine coverage.
This would, on the one hand, incentivize vaccine manufacturers to rapidly scale up their production and on the other hand, it would also attract new vaccine manufacturers.
17. Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gasses which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: Global warming, the gradual heating of Earth’s surface, oceans and atmosphere, is caused by human activity, primarily the burning of fossil fuels that pump carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere.
Under the effects:
- “Ice is melting in both polar ice caps and mountain glaciers.
- Lakes around the world, including Lake Superior, are warming rapidly and in some cases faster than the surrounding environment.
- Animals are changing migration patterns and plants are changing the dates of activity,” such as trees budding their leaves earlier in the spring and dropping them later in the fall.
- One of the most immediate and obvious consequences of global warming is the increase in temperatures around the world.
- Lightning is another weather feature that is being affected by global warming. According to a 2014 study, a 50% increase in the number of lightning strikes.
Kyoto Protocol applies to 6 greenhouse gasses; carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride. It is an extension to the 1992 UNFCCC. The control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gasses which cause global warming under Kyoto Protocol are:
- The establishment of flexible market mechanisms, which are based on the trade of emissions permits.
- Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms:
- International Emissions Trading
- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
- Joint implementation (JI)
- The Kyoto Protocol, like the Convention, is also designed to assist countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. It facilitates the development and deployment of technologies that can help increase resilience to the impacts of climate change.
These mechanisms ideally encourage GHG abatement to start where it is most cost-effective, for example, in the developing world. This has the parallel benefits of stimulating green investment in developing countries and including the private sector in this endeavor to cut and hold steady GHG emissions at a safe level. It also makes leap-frogging—that is, the possibility of skipping the use of older, dirtier technology for newer, cleaner infrastructure and systems, with obvious longer-term benefits—more economical.
18. Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard? (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: Coastal erosion is the process by which local sea level rise, strong wave action, and coastal flooding wear down or carry away rocks, soils, and/or sands along the coast.
The causes of coastal erosion are:
- Wave energy is considered to be the primary reason for coastal erosion.
- Natural hazards like cyclones, thermal expansion of seawater, storm surges, tsunami etc
- Due to the melting of continental glaciers and ice sheets as a result of climate change hamper the natural rhythm and precipitate erosion.
- Dredging, sand mining and coral mining have contributed to coastal erosion causing sediment deficit, modification of water depth leading to longshore drift and altered wave refraction.
- Coastal erosion has been sparked by fishing harbors and dams constructed in the catchment area of rivers and ports reducing the flow of sediments from river estuaries.
Impacts of Coastal Erosion are :
- Population Vulnerability: Presently about 40% of the world’s population lives within 100 kilometres of the coastline. These coastal regions are undergoing environmental decline.
- Depleted resources: heavy use of fisheries has reduced endemic coastal fish stocks to about 10-30 percent of the supply that existed 30 years ago.
- Ecological degradation: Half of the world’s wetlands disappeared, half of all mangroves, and nearly 60 percent of the world’s coral reefs are seriously degraded.
- Pollution: from industry, agriculture, and urban areas is degrading the quality of much of the world’s fresh water.
The available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard are:
Hard structural/engineering options use structures constructed on the beach (seawalls, groins, breakwaters/artificial headlands) or further offshore (offshore breakwaters).
Soft structural/engineering options aim to dissipate wave energy by mirroring natural forces and maintaining the natural topography of the coast. They include beach nourishment/feeding, dune building, revegetation and other non-structural management options.
Combining hard and soft solutions is sometimes necessary to improve the efficiency of the options and provide an environmentally and economically acceptable coastal protection system.
19. What are the different elements of cyber security ? Keeping in view the challenges in cyber security, examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy. (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: Cybersecurity is a way of preventing and protecting a system, networks, and technologies from unauthorized access.
Strong cybersecurity on a systematic approach includes the following elements:
- Application security: Applications play an essential role in business ventures; that is why every firm needs to focus on web application security.
- Information security: Information includes business records, personal data, customer’s data, and intellectual property.
- Network Security consists of protecting the usability and reliability of network and data. A network penetration test is conducted to assess the vulnerabilities in a system and other security issues which occur in servers, hosts, devices and network services.
- Business continuity planning (BCP) is all about being prepared for interference or cyber threat by identifying threats to the organization on time and analyzing how operations may be affected and how to overcome that.
- Operations security (OPSEC) is used to protect organization functions. It tracks critical information and assets to identify vulnerabilities that exist in the functional method.
- End-user education is One of the standard errors that lead to data breaches is human error.
In 2020, the National Cyber Security Strategy was conceptualized by the Data Security Council of India (DSCI) headed by Lt General Rajesh Pant. The report focused on 21 areas to ensure a safe, secure, trusted, resilient, and vibrant cyberspace for India. The Main Components of the National Cyber Security Strategy:
Large Scale Digitization of Public Services: Focus on security in the early stages of design in all digitization initiatives.
Supply Chain Security: Monitoring and mapping of the supply chain of the Integrated Circuits (ICT) and electronics products.
Critical Information Infrastructure Protection: Integrating Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) security.
Digital Payments: Mapping and modeling of devices and platforms deployed, supply chain, transacting entities, payment flows, interfaces and data exchange.
State-Level Cyber Security: Developing state-level cybersecurity policies.
Security of Small and Medium Businesses: Policy intervention in cybersecurity granting incentives for a higher level of cybersecurity preparedness.
20. Naxalism is a social, economic and developmental issue manifesting as a violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues and suggest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism. (Answer in 250 words) 15
Solution: Naxalism signifies a particular kind of militant and violent armed struggle by the peasants and tribal who accept Maoist ideology. Naxalism in India began in a small village in West Bengal called Naxalbadi in 1967, when a group of tribal people known as the Santhals started agitation against the landlords they were working for. According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), the influence of Naxalism has shrunk from 106 to 90 districts spread over 11 states. As of 2018,
Naxalism as a Challenge to India: Administrative hurdles in dealing with LWE. Poor infrastructure, lack of communication and shortage of trained workforce are key problem to fight Maoists. Absence of administration in these areas causing Maoists to virtually run a parallel Government. Poor coordination among Central and State Police Forces and lack of professionalism. Inter-state boundaries are fissures which are exploited by Maoists. Differences in policies among states with respect to surrender, talks and capture etc. E.g.: Operation Greyhound (AP) – Naxalism is almost eliminated in the state but they escaped to neighboring state – Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Odisha. If the Operation was coordinated with all states (support), then the escape could have been prevented.
Steps taken by the Government: Operation Green Hunt: It was started in 2010 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the Naxal-affected areas. From 223 districts that were affected due to Naxalism in the year 2010, the number has come down to 90 in nine years. The government even started ‘Relief and Rehabilitation Policy’ for bringing Naxalites into mainstream. Members of Central Committee Politburo of communist parties have either been killed or arrested. Aspirational Districts Programme: Launched in 2018, it aims to rapidly transform the districts that have shown relatively lesser progress in key social areas. Continuous efforts of government have reduced the frequency of violent attacks in the Naxalism-affected regions.