- No Filter
- Sunny side up India
A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has determined that its 2014 judgment, which invalidated Section 6A of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act governing the CBI, will apply retrospectively from the date the provision (6A) was introduced in 2003. Section 6A mandated that any inquiry into corruption allegations involving officials holding the rank of Joint Secretary and above could only commence after obtaining approval from the Central government.
- GS2- Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-judicial Bodies.
Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
- GS4-Probity in Governance: Information Sharing and Transparency in Government, Challenges of Corruption.
Highlighting the evolution of Section 6A of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, analyse its applicability today. (15 marks, 250 words)
Evolution of Section 6A:
- It was introduced with the intention of reinstating the Centre’s ‘Single Directive,’ a set of guidelines to the CBI regarding the procedures for conducting an investigation.
- In the landmark Vineet Narain case of 1997, the Supreme Court had invalidated the directive, arguing that administrative instructions cannot hinder a statutory investigation.
- Six years later, Section 6A was enacted to reintroduce the requirement of prior approval.
- However, in 2014, the Court also struck down this section, stating that it violated the principle of equality by offering protection only to a specific group of public servants, rather than to all.
- The recent judgment dismisses arguments from individuals under investigation who sought the protection of Section 6A because they were charged with offenses dating back to a period when the provision was in effect before the 2014 judgment.
- The Court has reaffirmed that post-constitution laws cannot be in conflict with the Constitution, and when declared as such by a court, they are invalidated from their inception.
Efficacy of the Judgment now:
- The impact of the judgment is currently limited, as it will only affect allegations that pertain to the period between 2003 and 2014.
- The current legal framework has undergone significant changes. In 2018, when the Prevention of Corruption Act was amended, Section 17A was introduced, making the government’s prior approval a mandatory prerequisite before initiating any investigation into decisions or recommendations made by a public servant.
- This initial filtering process has been implemented even though obtaining sanction is still necessary for prosecuting any public servant when the trial court takes cognizance of the charge sheet.
Requiring prior approval for the initiation of an anti-corruption investigation is not inherently desirable. In its 2014 judgment, the Court had noted that such provisions undermine the objectives of anti-corruption laws, obstruct the revelation of the truth, and sometimes serve as an advance warning to officials implicated as soon as allegations are raised against them. While it may be necessary to have safeguards to screen out frivolous inquiries into the actions of public servants who make important and bona fide decisions, it is equally important for the public interest that these provisions do not become a protective shield for those engaging in unscrupulous activities.
India and Saudi Arabia entered into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on September 10 to collaborate in the energy sector. Notably, the focus of this agreement is on renewable energy, with the potential for connecting their national power grids via an underwater link.
- GS2-Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Linking of national grids between India and Saudi Arabia help India take strides in renewable energy. Comment critically. (10 marks, 150 words).
Significance of the MoU:
- Both nations are undergoing a significant shift from conventional energy sources to renewable energy (RE).
- Saudi Arabia aims to boost its domestic RE capacity to 50% of its total energy production by 2030 while India’s formal objective is to more than double its RE capacity from 175 GW in 2022 to 450 GW by 2030.
- This aligns with the global trend towards RE, as the International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that RE capacity additions will reach 4,500 GW by next year, equivalent to the combined power output of the United States and China.
Challenges in Advancing Renewable Energy:
- The top-down approach of promoting RE through fiscal incentives in many countries has not entirely resolved the subsequent challenges.
- RE production depends on favorable conditions like sunlight, unlike fossil fuel-based energy.
- RE introduces complexity into grid management due to fluctuating power demand throughout the day.
- India’s uneven state-level development of RE illustrates these challenges.
- When factoring in the cost of energy storage for RE, the economic viability of RE projects can be less attractive.
- India’s ambitious plan to scale up RE by 2030, primarily through solar power, will pose significant grid management challenges.
- An ideal solution is to transfer surplus power across the grid to areas with varying peak power demand.
- In the event of a global surge in RE capacity, connecting national grids can make it economically feasible.
- Advancements in energy storage technology, particularly batteries, offer promise, but countries must ensure that the supply chain of critical materials like cobalt, used in batteries, does not become a geopolitical weapon.
While the India-Saudi Arabia MoU is in its early stages, exploring grid connectivity to manage the growing RE capacity is vital. Both countries have the advantage of a stable diplomatic relationship, making this collaboration promising.