Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry

PIB Summaries 28 August 2023


  1. Rail-Sea-Rail (RSR) Transportation
  2. National Judicial Data Grid

Rail-Sea-Rail (RSR) Transportation


The Ministry of Coal is promoting the Rail-Sea-Rail (RSR) transportation strategy, aimed at streamlining the movement of domestic coal.


GS III: Infrastructure

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Rail-Sea-Rail (RSR) Transportation
  2. Growth and Future Significance
  3. Challenges and Considerations

Rail-Sea-Rail (RSR) Transportation:

Innovative Multimodal Strategy

  • RSR is a pioneering multimodal transportation approach.
  • Integrates rail and sea routes to ensure seamless coal movement from mines to ports and final users.

Enhanced Efficiency and Reduced Costs

  • Objective: Aims to boost logistical efficiency and decrease transportation expenses.

Addressing Coal Movement Challenges

  • Purpose: RSR targets efficient coal transfer from production centers to regions of consumption.
  • Significant Dispatch: Around 75% of domestic raw coal dispatch originates from major coal-producing states like Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Jharkhand.
  • Coal Production Projection: The Ministry of Coal anticipates an increased coal production to meet escalating energy demand, with a projected CAGR of about 7.7% by FY’30.
Leveraging Coastal Shipping
  • Coastal Shipping Advantage: Coastal shipping is cost-effective and environmentally conscious for transporting goods, including coal.
  • Port Potential: RSR emphasizes tapping into the potential of ports along India’s Southern and Western coasts.
  • Effective Distribution: Ensures streamlined coal movement to powerhouses in states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh.
Cost Efficiency and Competitiveness
  • Cost Savings: Adoption of RSR could lead to substantial cost reduction.
  • Potential Savings: Estimated savings of Rs. 760-1300 per ton for end-users in Southern India.
  • Competitive Edge: Cost benefits make domestically produced coal more competitive against imported coal.
Reducing Congestion and Logistics Enhancement
  • Railway Dominance: Presently, railways handle 55% of coal evacuation, with a vision to elevate this to 75% by FY’30.
  • Alleviating Congestion: RSR aims to alleviate congestion on conventional rail routes prone to bottlenecks due to high traffic.

Growth and Future Significance

  • Remarkable Growth: Rail-sea-rail coal transportation has grown by approximately 125% in the past four years.
  • Increasing Coal Production: With a predicted doubling of coal production in the next seven years, RSR’s success becomes pivotal for uninterrupted coal supply across consumption centers.

Challenges and Considerations

  • Infrastructure Requirements: Efficient RSR implementation necessitates robust rail and port infrastructure.
  • Risk Mitigation: Addressing potential challenges like adverse weather, technical glitches, and transport disruptions through risk mitigation strategies.
  • Collaborative Execution: Seamless collaboration among Ministries involved in RSR strategy implementation is vital for smooth execution.

National Judicial Data Grid


Recently, the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) has gained significant attention for its role in revolutionizing the way judicial proceedings are managed in India.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG)

National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG)

Online Database for Judicial Proceedings
  • NJDG serves as an online platform under the eCourts Project.
  • Comprises orders, judgments, and case details from 18,735 District & Subordinate Courts and High Courts.
  • Data is frequently updated by connected courts, offering insights into judicial proceedings across the country.
Features for Access and Evaluation
  • Open API for Data Sharing: NJDG aligns with the National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy (NDSAP), offering an Open API to Central & State Governments.
  • Streamlined Access: Designated departmental IDs and access keys provide easy access to NJDG data.
  • Institutional Litigants: Initial focus is on institutional litigants, enabling them to evaluate and monitor cases, with plans to extend access to non-institutional litigants later.
Role in Judicial Management
  • Pendency Reduction: NJDG functions as a monitoring tool to identify, manage, and diminish case pendency.
  • Policy Support: Offers timely inputs for policy decisions to expedite case disposal and reduce delays.
  • Court Performance Monitoring: Helps in monitoring court performance, identifying systemic bottlenecks, and serving as an efficient resource management tool.
Linkage with Land Records Data
  • Land Dispute Tracking: NJDG is linked with Land Records data from 26 States, aiding in tracking cases related to land disputes.
International Recognition
  • World Bank Commendation: In the 2018 Ease of Doing Business report, NJDG was praised by the World Bank (WB) for generating case management reports that facilitate contract enforcement.
  • Business Environment Enhancement: This recognition highlights NJDG’s role in improving the business environment through streamlined judicial processes.

February 2024